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Android TV launches, bringing Android to the big screen. 1 allows for even more immersive and visually captivating Android gaming. Android at Work is introduced, allowing for separate device profiles for personal and work use. Notifications now merely pop up as a banner, with options to deal with them immediately or simply dismiss them, rather than having them take over the screen.

Smart Lock lets you unlock your device automatically when a trusted Bluetooth device like a smartwatch is present. RAW image support is now available for photographers who want every last bit of data available from the image sensor. 0 is currently on 11. 6 percent of devices accessing Google Play. 1 - March 2015. Key device s Android One smartphones. Quick Settings panel is smarter, with animations to indicate when settings are being changed and quick drop-downs for switching Wi-Fi or Bluetooth connections.

Device Protection keeps your data safe even if your phone is lost or stolen. A thief can factory-reset the device, but it will still remain locked unless your Google account login is entered. Sound profiles are made clearer with specific times displayed if you are allowing only Priority or No Interruptions to come through. You also can set the restrictions just until your next alarm, so you don t have to worry about oversleeping. HD voice calling gains official support. Dual-SIM support is now officially part of Android as well.

1 is on just 0. 8 percent of all Android devices accessing Google Play. A Quick Contact widget is available in Email, Messaging and Calendar. Android versions A living history from 1. Explore Android s ongoing evolution with this visual timeline of versions, starting B. Before Cupcake and going all the way to 2020 s Android 11 release. Contributing Editor, Computerworld. Android Versions.

Android versions A living history from. 20 advanced tips for Android 10 Android Pie 30 advanced tips and tricks Android Oreo 18 advanced tips and. 30 tasty tips for Android Nougat Master Marshmallow 12 useful tips for. From its inaugural release to today, Android has transformed visually, conceptually and functionally time and time again. Google s mobile operating system may have started out scrappy, but holy moly, has it ever evolved.

Here s a fast-paced tour of Android version highlights from the platform s birth to present. Feel free to skip ahead if you just want to see what s new in Android 11. Android versions 1. 1 The early days. Android made its official public debut in 2008 with Android 1. 0 a release so ancient it didn t even have a cute codename. Things were pretty basic back then, but the software did include a suite of early Google apps like Gmail, Maps, Calendar, and YouTube, all of which were integrated into the operating system a stark contrast to the more easily updatable standalone-app model employed today.

0 home screen and its rudimentary web browser not yet called Chrome. The Android 1. With early 2009 s Android 1. Android version 1. 5 Cupcake release, the tradition of Android version names was born. Cupcake introduced numerous refinements to the Android interface, including the first on-screen keyboard something that d be necessary as phones moved away from the once-ubiquitous physical keyboard model.

Cupcake also brought about the framework for third-party app widgets, which would quickly turn into one of Android s most distinguishing elements, and it provided the platform s first-ever option for video recording. Cupcake was all about robo para opções binarias iq option 2020 widgets. 6, Donut, rolled into the world in the fall of 2009. Donut filled in some important holes in Android s center, including the ability for the OS to operate robo para opções binarias iq option 2020 a variety of different screen sizes and resolutions a factor that d be critical in the years to come.

It also added support for CDMA networks like Verizon, which would play a key role in Android s imminent explosion. Android s universal search box made its first appearance in Android 1. Android versions 2. Keeping up the breakneck release pace of Android s early years, Android 2. 0 Eclair, emerged just six weeks after Donut; its point-one update, also called Eclair, came out a couple months later.

Eclair was the first Android release to enter mainstream consciousness thanks to the original Motorola Droid phone and the massive Verizon-led marketing campaign surrounding it. The release s most transformative element was the addition of voice-guided turn-by-turn navigation and real-time traffic info something previously unheard of and still essentially unmatched in the smartphone world.

Navigation aside, Eclair brought live wallpapers to Android as well as the platform s first speech-to-text function. And it made waves for injecting the once-iOS-exclusive pinch-to-zoom capability into Android a move often seen as the spark that ignited Apple s long-lasting thermonuclear war against Google.

The first versions of turn-by-turn navigation and speech-to-text, in Eclair. Android version 2. Just four months after Android 2. 1 arrived, Google served up Android 2. 2, Froyo, which revolved largely around under-the-hood performance improvements. Froyo did deliver some important front-facing features, though, including the addition of the now-standard dock at the bottom of the home screen as well as the first incarnation of Voice Actions, which allowed you to perform basic functions like getting directions and making notes by tapping an icon and then speaking a command.

Notably, Froyo also brought support for Flash to Android s web browser an option that was significant both because of the widespread use of Flash at the time and because of Apple s adamant stance against supporting it on its own mobile devices. Apple would eventually win, of course, and Flash would become far less common. But back when it was still everywhere, being able to access the full web without any black holes was a genuine advantage only Android could offer.

3 Gingerbread. Android s first true visual identity started coming into focus with 2010 s Gingerbread release. Google s first real attempt at voice control, in Froyo. Bright green had long been the color of Android s robot mascot, and with Gingerbread, it became an integral part of the operating system s appearance. Black and green seeped all over the UI as Android started its slow march toward distinctive design. JR Raphael IDG. It was easy being green back in the Gingerbread days.

2 Honeycomb. 2011 s Honeycomb period was a weird time for Android. 0 came into the world as a tablet-only release to accompany the launch of the Motorola Xoom, and through the subsequent 3. 2 updates, it remained a tablet-exclusive and closed-source entity. Under the guidance of newly arrived design chief Matias Duarte, Honeycomb introduced a dramatically reimagined UI for Android.

It had a space-like holographic design that traded the platform s trademark green for blue and placed an emphasis on making the most of a tablet s screen space. Honeycomb When Android got a case of the holographic blues. While the concept of a tablet-specific interface didn t last long, many of Honeycomb s ideas laid the groundwork for the Android we know today.

The software was the first to use on-screen buttons for Android s main navigational commands; it marked the beginning of the end for the permanent overflow-menu button; and it introduced the concept of a card-like UI with its take on the Recent Apps list. Android version 4. 0 Ice Cream Sandwich. With Honeycomb acting as the bridge from old to new, Ice Cream Sandwich also released in 2011 served as the platform s official entry into the era of modern design.

The release refined the visual concepts introduced with Honeycomb and reunited tablets and phones with a single, unified UI vision. ICS dropped much of Honeycomb s holographic appearance but kept its use of blue as a system-wide highlight. And it carried over core system elements like on-screen buttons and a card-like appearance for app-switching.

The ICS home screen and app-switching interface. 0 also made swiping a more integral method of getting around the operating system, with the then-revolutionary-feeling ability to swipe away things like notifications and recent apps. And it started the slow process of bringing a standardized design framework known as Holo all throughout the OS and into Android s app ecosystem.

Android versions 4. 3 Jelly Bean. Spread across three impactful Android versions, 2012 and 2013 s Jelly Bean releases took ICS s fresh foundation and made meaningful strides in fine-tuning and building upon it. The releases added plenty of poise and polish into the operating system and went a long way in making Android more inviting for the average user. Visuals aside, Jelly Bean brought about our first taste of Google Now the spectacular predictive-intelligence utility that s sadly since devolved into a glorified news feed.

It gave us expandable and interactive notifications, an expanded voice search system, and a more advanced system for displaying search results in general, with a focus on card-based results that attempted to answer questions directly. Multiuser support also came into play, albeit on tablets only at this point, and an early version of Android s Quick Settings panel made its first appearance. Jelly Bean ushered in a heavily hyped system for placing widgets on your lock screen, too one that, like so many Android features over the years, quietly disappeared a couple years later.

Jelly Bean s Quick Settings panel and short-lived lock screen widget feature. Late-2013 s KitKat release marked the end of Android s dark era, as the blacks of Gingerbread and the blues of Honeycomb finally made their way out of the operating system. Lighter backgrounds and more neutral highlights took their places, with a transparent status bar and white icons giving the OS a more contemporary appearance. 4 also saw the first version of OK, Google support but in KitKat, the hands-free activation prompt worked only when your screen was already on and you were either at your home screen or inside the Google app.

The release was Google s first foray into claiming a full panel of the home screen for its services, too at least, for users of its own Nexus phones and those who chose to download its first-ever standalone launcher. The lightened KitKat home screen and its dedicated Google Now panel. Verizon s iDon t ad for the Droid. VTS itself means the compliance test suite of Android Vendor Interface VINTF.

Android Vendor Test Suite VTS consists of three products. This concept is introduced from Android version 8. 0 O in order to improve the engineering productivity, launch velocity, security, and reliability of Android device ecosystem. VTS and VTS- have a set of test cases designed to test the following components directly under VINTF.

VINTF is a versioned, stable interface for Android vendor implementation. Hardware Abstraction Layer HAL modules Vendor native libraries e.Vendor NDK, shortly VNDK OS i.Linux kernel. VTS- has the optional non-functional tests and test case development tools. Both are for quality assurance. The non-functional tests include performance tests e.vts-performance and fuzz tests e. The test development tools include a HAL API call trace recording tool and a native code coverage measurement tool.

Vendor Test Infrastructure VTI is a set of cloud-based infrastructures for Android device partners and Open Source Software OSS ecosystems. It allows partners to easily create a cloud-based continuous integration service for VTS tests. Are you interested in using and developing some VTS tests now. Establishing a test environment. Then please click the next button. Recommended system environment. To set up a testing environment. Install Python development kit Install Protocol Buffer tools for Python Install Python virtual environment-related tools Connect device to host Connect an unlocked Android device to a host computer using a USB cable.

On the Android device, go to Settings About Phone then click Build number until developer mode is enabled. On the Android device, go to Settings Developer options Turn on USB debugging. On the host, run from command-line shell On the Android device, confirm the host is trusted. On the host, run from command-line shell If that works, you are ready. Testing a patch. To test a patch. Build a VTS host-side package Run the default VTS tests.

Available VTS test plans include. For default VTS tests. For default VTS HAL hardware abstraction layer tests. For default VTS kernel tests. VTS TradeFed Console Options. Runs one specific test module. Available VTS TradeFed console options include. Prints detailed console logs. list invocations or l i for short.

Lists all invocation threads. run vts --primary-abi-only. run vts --skip-all-system-status-check --skip-preconditions --primary-abi-only. Shortens test execution time. Runs a test plan on the primary ABI e. Selects a device to use when multiple devices are connected. Prints help page that lists other console options. For Windows Host. While building VTS on Windows is not supported, it is possible to run VTS on a Windows host machine with Python, Java, and ADB installed.

html Python 2. org downloads windows ADB 1. html Install the required Python packages by using pip. Build VTS on Linux Copy out host linux-x86 vts android-vts. zip to your Windows host and extract it. All VTS, VTS-and VTI code is kept in AOSP Android Open Source Project. Let s download the AOSP source code based on this Downloading the Source manual. Write a Host-Side Python Test. Before actually extending that test, let s build and run that test. Run vts-tradefed_win. We will extend the provided VTS HelloWorld Codelab test.

If your VTS TradeFed console printed the following result e.PASSED 4that means you can run VtsCodelabHelloWorldTest successfully on your device and thus are ready for this part of the codelab. It also shows where the test logs are kept out host linux-x86 vts android-vts logs 2017. 07 and the xml report is stored out host linux-x86 vts android-vts results 2017. The VtsCodelabHelloWorldTest code is stored in test vts testcases codelab hello_world.

That directory has the following four files. xml Test module configuration file. mk Build file to define a test build module. py Test case Python file to define the actual test logic. py An empty file required for Python package. Let s look into each of the first three files. It tells that the test module s build module name is VtsCodelabHelloWorldTestand its source code is kept in the testcases codelab hello_world directory.

The last line is to use the predefined VTS build rule. This xml file tells VTS TradeFed how to prepare and run the VtsCodelabHelloWorldTest test. It uses two VTS TradeFed test preparers VtsFilePusher and VtsPythonVirtualenvPreparer. It uses VtsFilePusher to push all the files needed for a host-driven test. The actual list is defined in HostDrivenTest. push file which includes VtsDriverHal. Those included files may include some other push files defined in the same directory.

push and VtsDriverShell. The other used preparer VtsPythonVirtualenvPreparer creates a Python virtual environment using Python v2. 7 and installs all the default Python packages to that virtual environment. The actual test execution is specified by the VtsMultiDeviceTest class where option test-module-name specifies the actual test module name, which we can use when we do run vts -m from a VTS TradeFed console, and option test-case-path specifies the path of the actual test source file excluding.

py extension. Note that the test module name can be no more than 43 characters in length. This file contains the actual test source code. It has the test class VtsCodelabHelloWorldTest which inherits from BaseTestClass class. This class can have four default methods setUpClass which is called once at the beginning for setup, setUp which is called before running each test case, tearDown which is called after each test case, and tearDownClass which is called once at the end for cleanup.

In this case, only setUpClass is defined by overriding and simply gets a DUT Device Under Test instance. A test case is a method with test as the prefix of its name e.testEcho1 and testEcho2. testEcho1 test case invokes a remote shell instance first linesends echo hello_world shell command to a target device second lineand verifies the results fourth line to check the stdout of the echo command and fifth line to check the exit code of the same echo command.

testEcho2 test case shows how to send multiple shell commands using one Python function call. Then, run the following commands to test it. To extend this test module, let s add the following method to VtsCodelabHelloWorldTest class. You can check the test logs to see whether all files are correctly listed. Robo para opções binarias iq option 2020 result can be validated by using adb shell ls data local tmp command. Because it only used host-side Python code, we call this a host-side Python test.

Write a Target-Side C C Binary Test. This part explains how to package a target-side binary or a shell script as a VTS test by using BinaryTest template. Let s assume your binary test module name is vts_sample_binary_test that would exit with 0 if that test passes. You can wrap the test easily with VTS BinaryTest template by specifying the test module path and type in AndroidTest. The binary-test-source option specifies where the binary is packaged in VTS, and the BinaryTest template will push the test binary to a default location on device and deleting it after test finishes.

You can also specify a test tag, which is often used to distinguish 32bit tests and 64bit tests. This part of codelab explains a few commonly used templates. An example test is available at ANDROID_BUILD_TOP test vts testcases codelab target_binary. Wrap a target side GTest binary with GtestBinaryTest template. If your test binary is a GTest Google Testyou may still use the BinaryTest template, which will treat the test module as a single test case in result reporting.

You can specify the gtest binary test type so that individual test cases will be correctly parsed. GtestBinaryTest template will first list all the available test cases, and then run them one by one through shell command with --gtest_filter flag. This means, each test case will be executed on its own Linux process, and global static variable across test cases should not be used. Wrap a target side HIDL HAL test binary with HalHidlGtest template.

From Android version 8. 0 OHardware Interface Definition Language HIDL is used to specify HAL interfaces. Using VTS, HIDL HAL testing can be done effectively because the VTS framework handles its non-conventional test steps transparently and provides various useful utils which a HIDL HAL test case can use. A HIDL HAL target side test often needs setup steps such as disabling Java framework, setting SELinux mode, toggling between passthrough and binder mode, checking HAL service status, and so forth.

Let s assume your test AndroidTest. xml looks like. The following option is needed to use the HIDL HAL gtest template. You can now use one of the following four preconditions to describe when your HIDL HAL test should be run. Option precondition-hwbinder-service is to specify a hardware binder service needed to run the test.

Option precondition-feature is to specify the name of a pm -listable feature needed to run the test. Option precondition-file-path-prefix is to specify the path prefix of a file e.shared library needed to run the test. Option precondition-lshal is to specify the name of a lshal -listable feature needed to run the test. The option skip-if-thermal-throttling can be set to true if you want to skip a test when your target device suffers from thermal throttling. Use a target side test runner for HIDL HAL.

Target side test runner is currently available for GTest and HAL HIDL tests. A HIDL GTest extending from VtsHalHidlTargetTestBase will allow VTS framework to toggle between passthrough and binder mode for performance comparison. The VTS HIDL target templates are located in VtsHalHidlTargetTestBase module, and you may include it through your Android.

bp file in the following way. And in SampleTest. VtsHalHidlTargetCallbackBase is another template in that runner. It offers utility function such as WaitForCallback and NotifyFromCallback. A typical usage is as follows. The source code may contain more detailed explanation on the APIs. Customize your test configuration Optional. Pre-test file pushes from host to device can be configured for VtsFilePusher in AndroidTest.

By default, AndroidText. xml pushes a group of files required to run VTS framework specified in test vts tools vts-tradefed res push_groups HidlHalTest. Individual file push can be defined with push option inside VtsFilePusher. Please refer to TradeFed for more detail. Python module dependencies can be specified as dep-module option for VtsPythonVirtualenvPreparer in AndroidTest.

VtsPythonVirtualenvPreparer will install a set of package including future, futures, enum, and protobuf by default. This will trigger the runner to install or update the modules using pip before running tests. Using a VTS template, you can quickly develop a VTS test for a specific objective. To add a dependency module, please add inside VtsPythonVirtualenvPreparer in AndroidTest.

Test case config. Optionally, a. config file can be used to pass variables in json format to test case. config file, create a. Then edit its contents to. And in your test case python class, you can get the json value by using self. getUserParams method. config file under your project directory using project name. Your config file will overwrite the following default json object defined at. VtsMultiDeviceTest class. The test plan to run VTS performance tests is vts-performance.

The available test modules in the vts-performance test plan are BinderThroughputBenchmarkBinderPerformanceTestHwBinderBinderizeThroughputTestHwBinderBinderizePerformanceTestHwBinderPassthroughThroughputTestHwBinderPassthroughPerformanceTestFmqPerformanceTest listed in vts-performance. The source code for performance tests is located at test vts-testcase performance. Description of test modules. Performance Tests for Binder, HwBinder. Test modules BinderPerformanceTest, HwBinderBinderizePerformanceTest, HwBinderPassthroughPerformanceTest, FmqPerformanceTest Measures roundtrip HwBinder RPC latency nanoseconds for the following message sizes bytes sent to IBenchmark.

hal 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256, 512, 1024, 2k, 4k, 8k, 16k, 32k, 64k Output results roundtrip time in real time, CPU time, number of iterations Test results PASS if all roundtrip times are less than threshold values defined in testcase python file e. py, HwBinderPerformanceTest. Performance Test for Fast Message Queue fmq.

Test modules FmqPerformanceTest Measures average time to read write the following message sizes bytes 64, 128, 256, 512 More info in testcase python file FmqPerformanceTest. Throughput Tests for Binder, HwBinder. Test modules BinderThroughputBenchmark, HwBinderBinderizeThroughputTest, HwBinderPassthroughThroughputTest Measures roundtrip latency for a 16 byte message sent to IBenchmark. How to run performance tests and interpret results.

hal for the following number of threads 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 10, 30, 50, 70, 100, 200 Output results iterations per sec, average msworst msbest ms50909599 Test results PASS if all time measurements are successfully collected. Run the vts-performance test plan or alternatively, an individual test module Read host logs to see the performance measurements of failed tests.

For Binder, HwBinder performance tests, the test output has four columns. Benchmark represents message data size bytes Time roundtrip RPC latency in real time ns CPU roundtrip RPC latency in CPU time ns Iterations number of iterations per second. Here are some examples of test outputs that have been formatted from host log. Test module HwBinderBinderizePerformanceTest for a 2016 Pixel XL device. Test module HwBinderPassthroughPerformanceTest for a 2016 Pixel XL device.

Test module HwBinderBinderizeThroughputTest for a 2016 Pixel XL device. HAL API call latency profiling. By enable API call latency profiling for your VTS HIDL HAL test, you are expected to get. trace files that record each API call happened during the test execution with the passed argument values as well as the return values. performance profiling data that contains the latency of each API call which is also displayed in the VTS dashboard if the dashboard feature is used. Add profiler library to VTS.

To enable profiling for your HAL testing, we need to add the corresponding profiler library in vts_test_lib_hidl_package_list. The name of the profiling library follow the pattern as. We will use Nfc Hal as a running example throughout this section, so, the profiler library name is android. Modify Your VTS Test Case. If you have not already, Codelab for Host-Driven Tests gives an overview of how to write a VTS test case.

This section assumes you have completed that codelab and have at least one VTS test case either host-side or target-side which you would like to enable profiling. This subsection describes how to enable profiling for target-side tests. Target-Side Tests. To enable profiling for host-side tests, follow the same steps by replacing target to host everywhere.

Copy an existing test directory. Note nfc could be replaced by the name of your HAL and V1_0 could be replaced by the version of your HAL version with format V _. Then rename the test name from VtsHalNfcV1_0Target to VtsHalNfcV1_0TargetProfiling everywhere. xml file under the target_profiling directory to push the profiler libraries to target. Add the following lines to the corresponding AndroidTest. Note, if the testing hal relies on a dependent hal e. 0 depends on android.

0we need to push the profiler library for the dependent hal as well. xml file under the target_profiling directory to enable profiling for test. An example AndroidTest. xml file looks like. Schedule the profiling test. Subscribe the notification alert emails. Please check notification page for the detailed instructions. Basically, now it is all set so let s wait for a day or so and then visit your VTS Dashboard. At that time, you should be able to add VtsHalNfcV1_0TargetProfiling to your favorite list.

That is all you need to do in order to subscribe alert emails which will sent if any notably performance degradations are found by your profiling tests. Also if you click VtsHalNfcV1_0TargetProfiling in the dashboard main page, the test result page shows up where the top-left side shows the list of APIs which have some measured performance data. Where to find the trace files. All the trace files generated during the tests are by default stored under tmp vts-test-trace. config under the test directory with.

To change the directory that store the path file, create a configure file e. add following lines to the corresponding AndroidTest. Custom profiling points and post-processing. Let s assume you have created a performance benchmark binary which could run independently on device, e. Integrate the benchmark as a VTS test. Add benchmark binary to VTS. To package benchmark binary with VTS, add it to vts_test_bin_package_list. mk after the vts_test_bin_packages variable.

Add VTS host side script. The host side script control the benchmark execution and the processing of the benchmark results. It typically contains the following major steps. Register device controller and invoke shell on the target device. Setup the command to run the benchmark on the device. Where path_to_binary represents the full path of benchmark binary on the target device. The default path is data local tmp my_benchmark_test. Validate benchmark test results.

Parse the benchmark test results and upload the metrics to VTS web dashboard. Depends on the output format of the test results, we need to parse the STDOUT content in the return results into performance data points. Currently, VTS supports processing and displaying two performance data type. One is timestamp sample which records the start and end time stamp for a particular operation.

The other is vector data sample which records a list of profiling data along with data labels. Take the vector data sample as example, let s suppose we have parsed the benchmark results into two vectors. One stores the performance data e. latency of the API callthe other stores the corresponding data labels e.

the input size of API call. Call AddProfilingDataLabeledVector to upload the vector data sample to VTS web as follows. Follow the same instruction in Codelab for Host-Driven Tests Write a VTS Test section to create a host-side VTS test using the host side script created in section 2. Configure the VTS test. Support for native coverage through VTS depends on a functioning instance of the VTS Dashboard, including integration with a build server and a Gerrit server.

See the documentation for VTS Dashboard setup and configuration before proceeding. Building a Device Image. The first step in measuring coverage is creating a device image that is instrumented for gcov coverage collection. This can be accomplished with a flag in the device manifest and a few build-time flags. Let s add the following code segment to the device. This will have no impact on the device when coverage is disabled at build time but will add a read-only device property in the case when coverage is enabled.

Next, we can build a device image. The continuous build server must be configured to execute the build command with a few additional flags NATIVE_COVERAGE, and COVERAGE_PATHS. The latter specifies the comma-separated paths to the source which should be instrumented for coverage. The former is a global flag to enable or disable coverage instrumentation. As an example, let s propose an example for measuring coverage on the NFC implementation. We can configure the build command as follows.

Modifying Your Test for Host-Driven HIDL HAL Tests. In most cases, no additional test configuration is needed to enable coverage. At last, add the following line to com. By default, coverage processing is enabled on the target if it is coverage instrumented as per the previous section and the test is a target-side binary. Host-driven tests have more flexibility for coverage measurement, as the host.

may request coverage files after each API call, at the end of a test case, or when. all test cases have completed. Measure coverage at the end of an API call. Coverage is available with the result of each API call. To add it to the dashboard. for display, call self. SetCoverageData with the contents of result. For example, in a test of the lights HAL, the following would gather coverage. after an API call to set the light.

Measure coverage at the end of a test case. After a test case has completed, coverage can be gathered independently of an. Coverage can be requested from the device under test dut with the. method GetRawCodeCoverage. For example, at the end of a host-side NFC test case, coverage data is fetched using the call. Measure coverage by pulling all coverage files from the device. For coarse coverage measurement e. after running all of the testscoverage. can be requested by pulling any coverage-related output files from the device.

manually over ADB. The base test class provides a coverage feature to fetch. and process the files. Configuring the Test for Coverage optional. The VTS framework automatically derives the information it needs to process the coverage data emitted from the device after test execution and to query Gerrit for the relevant source code. For instance, the following two paths would both be identified as the project platform test vts.

On the other hand, a project with the path android platform test vts would not be automatically matched with the project by name platform test vts. However, it relies on the assumption that there is a symmetry between git project names and the full Android source tree; specifically, the project name and the path to the project from the Android root may differ by at most one relative node in order for the VTS framework to identify the source code.

In cases when the project name differs significantly from the project s path from the Android root, a manual configuration must be specified in the test configuration JSON file. the module name in the make file for the binary or shared libraryas well as git project name and path for the source code included in the module. We must specify a list of dictionaries, each containing the module name i. For example, add the following to the configuration JSON file.

For the lights HAL, the test configuration file would look like. Running VTS. At test runtime, coverage will automatically be collected and processed by the VTS framework with no additional effort required. The processed coverage data will be uploaded to the VTS Dashboard along with the test results so that the source code can be visualized with a line-level coverage overlay. Note that two external dependencies are necessary to support coverage. A Gerrit server with REST API must be available and configured to integrate with the VTS Dashboard.

See the Dashboard setup for integration directions. A build artifact server with REST API must be configured to integrate with the VTS runner. This will allow the runner to fetch both a build-time coverage artifact from the building step above as well as the source version information for each git project within the repository at build time. The VTS framework expects an a JSON file named BUILD_INFO which contains a dictionary of source project names to git revisions under the key repo-dict.

After completing the build step and the test execution step, the VTS Dashboard should display a test result with a link in the row labeled Coverage. This will display a user interface similar to the one below. Lines executed are highlighted in green, while lines not exercised by the test are highlighted in red. White lines are not executable lines of code, such as comments and structural components of the coding language.

Offline Coverage. If the user would like to measure coverage without integrating with the VTS Dashboard or a build server, offline coverage measurement is also possible. First, we build a local device image. Next, we flash the device with the coverage-instrumented device image and run a VTS test. Note that robo para opções binarias iq option 2020 must manually force the HALs into same-process mode in order for the framework to extract coverage data.

Finally, we can process the files by pulling the outputted GCDA files robo para opções binarias iq option 2020 the device using adb and matching them with the source code and GCNO files produced at build time. The file structure is symmetric in the Android source code, out directory, and data partition of the device.

Source files located in the Android source tree. cpp GCNO files located in the appropriate out intermediates directory out target product. gcno GCDA files located on the device after test execution data misc gcov proc self cwd. These three can be combined into a tool such as gcov or lcov to produce a local coverage report.

Background and FAQs. To measure coverage, the source file is divided into units called basic. blocks, which may contain one or more lines of code. All code in the same basic. block are accounted for together. Some lines of code i. declarations are not executable and thus belong to no basic block. of code actually compile to several executable instructions i. conditional operators and belong to more than one basic block.

The generated coverage report displays a color-coded source file with numerical. annotations on the left margin. The row fill indicates whether or not a line of. code was executed when the tests were run green means it was covered, red means. The corresponding numbers on the left robo para opções binarias iq option 2020 indicate the number of. times the line was executed. Lines of code that are not colored and have no execution count in the margin are.

not executable instructions. Why do some lines have no coverage information. The line of code is not an executable instruction. For example, comments and structural coding language elements do not reflect instructions to the processor. Why are some lines called more than expected. Since some lines of code may belong to more than one basic block, they may. appear to have been executed more than expected.

For example, a line of code with an inline conditional statement may cause the line to belong to two basic blocks. Even if a line of code belongs to only one basic block, it may be display as having been executed more than it actually was. This may occur if one or more lines of code in the same basic block were executed, causing the execution count of the whole basic block to increase. What does HIDL HAL Interface Fuzzer do. HIDL HAL Interface Fuzzer inteface fuzzer is a fuzzer binary built using LLVM asan, sancov, and libFuzzer.

It runs against a user-specified target HIDL HALs. It calls HAL functions in random order with random inputs until a terminating condition, e. HAL crash, sanitizer violation, timeout. More information about asan, sancov, and libFuzzer. All the code for HIDL HAL interface fuzzer is already carried by android-vts. In other words, no additional test code needs to be written or compiled.

Only configuration is needed to run the interface fuzzer against a targeted HAL. As usual, you need an Android. mk and an AndroidTest. xml to deploy the fuzz test as part of VTS. Assume your test is named VtsHalBluetoothV1_0IfaceFuzzer. Then AndroidTest. xml should look something like this. This should looks fairly standard. The only things to pay attention to are these three lines. This option specifies what files need to be pushed onto the device.

Contents of IfaceFuzzerTest. This option specifies bluetooth HAL as our fuzz target. This option specifies the host code used to deploy the fuzzer binary. To run the fuzzer you need to compile VTS with appropriate asan and sancov build options. From android source root directory do. This will run VtsHalBluetoothV1_0IfaceFuzzer test, print logs to screen, and return back to shell. You will have to rely on logs to identify fuzzer failure.

If the fuzzer encounters an error e. segfault, buffer overflow, etcyou will see something like this in your log. This means that the fuzzer was able to trigger a segfault somewhere in bluetooth HAL implementation. Unfortunately, we don t have a way to symbolize this stack trace yet. However, the log will contain the last call sequence batch that triggered the failure.

Let s assume you have got trace files for your test e. by running the tests with profiling enabled, see instructions about HAL API call latency profiling. The trace files should be stored under test vts-tescase hal-trace. where is the name of your HAL and is the version of your HAL with format V _. We will use Vibrator Hal as a running example throughout this section, so the traces are stored under test vts-tescase hal-trace vibrator V1_0.

Create an HIDL HAL replay test. Follow the same instruction in Codelab for Host-Driven Tests to create a host-side VTS test with name VtsHalVibratorV1_0TargetReplay. Add the following line to the corresponding AndroidTest.



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