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Loudspeaker applications, including public buildings and Marine LSZH installations, are well met with our LSZH general purpose loudspeaker audio cable. All your AV cable application needs, whether domestic or professional, can be met by the extensive range of cabling available from VDC Trading. We offer the finest quality specialist cabling for your analogue and digital audio, video, and data needs.

Our AV cable products range from stranded broadcast quality video coax cable, suitable for runs up to 300M, to tough multicore cables ideal for heavy duty applications. Installation enhancements include AV cables with orange tracer for critical circuit identification, flexible PVC jackets and bonded foil screen jackets for easy stripping, plus availabilities by the metre or reel. Van Damme Cable Range. VDC s technical department has 40 years of combined experience providing custom solutions, technical advice and support to our clients.

continues to provide elegant cabling solutions for the audio video, broadcast and industrial markets. VDC is a leading supplier of analogue and digital audio and video cables to the professional and domestic user. If you have an eye exam and are told you have 20 20 vision, does this mean you have perfect eyesight. Is it possible to achieve even better than 20 20 vision.

And what is perfect vision anyway. To answer these questions, let s take a closer look at vision-related terminology to fully understand how eye doctors measure the quality of your vision. Visual acuity, eyesight and vision What s the difference. Visual acuity. This, literally, is the sharpness of your vision. Visual acuity is measured by your ability to identify letters or numbers on a standardized eye chart from a specific viewing distance.

Visual acuity is tested one eye at a time, with the help of a standardized Snellen eye chart. Visual acuity is a static measurement, meaning you are sitting still during the testing and the letters or numbers you are viewing also are stationary. Visual acuity also is tested under high contrast conditions typically, the letters or numbers on the eye chart are black, and the background of the chart is white.

Although visual acuity testing is very useful to determine the relative clarity of your eyesight in standardized conditions, it isn t predictive of the quality of your vision in all situations. For example, it can t predict how well you would see. Objects that are similar in brightness to their background. Three major physical and neurological factors determine visual acuity.

How accurately the cornea and lens of the eye focus light onto the retina. The sensitivity of the nerves in the retina and vision centers in the brain. The ability of the brain to interpret information received from the eyes. Only light that is focused on a very small and highly sensitive portion of the central retina called the macula influences visual acuity measurements obtained during an eye exam.

Visual acuity typically is quantified with Snellen fractions see What is 20 20 Vision. The exact definition of eyesight is difficult to pin down. Depending on which dictionary or other resource you check, it can mean ability to see, the sense of seeing, vision, range of sight or view. Often, the terms eyesight and visual acuity are used interchangeably.

This is a broader term than visual acuity or eyesight. In addition to sharpness of sight or simply a description of the ability to see, the term vision usually includes a wider range of visual abilities and skills. These include contrast sensitivity, the ability to track moving objects with smooth and accurate eye movements, color vision, depth perception, focusing speed and accuracy, and more.

If this more inclusive and accurate definition of vision is used, what most people call 20 20 vision should really be called 20 20 visual acuity. Realistically, that probably won t happen. For better or worse, the term 20 20 vision is likely here to stay. Fit Style Eyewear Quiz. Searching for the perfect pair of glasses. Glasses do more than improve your vision - they re an extension of your personality.

Try this helpful quiz from EyeBuyDirect to guide you to the best fit for your unique style and personality. With high-tech lenses from the world s leading manufacturers and a completely risk-free 14-day free return policy, discovering your perfect pair has never been easier. What is 20 20 vision. The term 20 20 and similar fractions such as 20 40, 20 60, etc.

are visual acuity measurements. They also are called Snellen fractions, named after Herman Snellen, the Dutch ophthalmologist who developed this measurement system in 1862. In the Snellen visual acuity system, the top number of the Snellen fraction is the viewing distance between the patient and the eye chart. In the United States, this distance typically is 20 feet; in other countries, it is 6 meters. At this testing distance, the size of the letters on one of the smaller lines near the bottom of the eye chart has been standardized to correspond to normal visual acuity â this is the 20 20 line.

If you can identify the letters on this line but none smaller, you have normal 20 20 visual acuity. The increasingly larger letter sizes on the lines on the Snellen chart above the 20 20 line correspond to worse visual acuity measurements 20 40, 20 60, etc. ; the lines with smaller letters below the 20 20 line on the chart correspond to visual acuity measurements that are even better than 20 20 vision e.20 15, 20 12, 20 10. The single big E at the top of most Snellen eye charts corresponds to 20 200 visual acuity.

If this is the smallest letter size you can discern with your best corrective lenses in front of your eyes, you are legally blind. On most Snellen charts, the smallest letters correspond to 20 10 visual acuity. If you have 20 10 visual acuity, your eyesight is twice as sharp as that of a person with normal 20 20 vision. Is it possible to see better than 20 20. Yes, it s indeed possible to have sharper than 20 20 vision. In fact, most people with young, healthy eyes are capable of identifying at least some of the letters on the 20 15 line or even smaller letters on the Snellen chart.

Your eye doctor or an assistant will use an instrument to show you choices of lenses to sharpen your eyesight. This may be due in part to better printing methods available today vs. those in the 19th century when Snellen was determining the smallest letters a person with normal vision should be able to discern. So a case could be made that normal visual acuity today is an ability to identify letters that are a bit smaller than those on the 20 20 line of a traditional Snellen eye chart.

On the other hand, people are living longer today than they did in Snellen s era. Normal aging changes in the eye, such as early cataracts, could justify considering somewhat larger letters than those on the 20 20 line as being indicative of normal vision among adults in their 60s or older. Regardless of these considerations, let s say your eye doctor says you have 20 20 vision or, more accurately, 20 20 visual acuityand you want sharper eyesight.

If your 20 20 vision doesn t seem sharp enough, it could be that your eyes have higher-order aberrations HOAs that cannot be corrected with regular eyeglasses or soft contact lenses. Your eye doctor can check for these aberrations with wavefront technology that is available in some eye care practices. If HOAs are caused by small irregularities in the shape of the front surface of your eyes, being fitted with gas permeable contact lenses GP lenses often can improve your visual acuity better than eyeglasses or soft contact lenses.

This is because GP lenses are rigid and essentially replace the eye s irregular front surface with a perfectly smooth, curved surface to focus light more accurately. Another option might be custom wavefront LASIK. This personalized laser vision correction surgery can provide vision that is comparable to wearing rigid gas permeable contact lenses which often is sharper than the visual acuity provided by glasses or soft contact lenseswithout the hassle of the daily contact lens care.

If you prefer to wear eyeglasses to correct your refractive errors, glasses with special high-definition lenses might give you sharper vision than regular eyeglass lenses. What is perfect vision. It s nearly impossible to quantify what perfect vision is. A more interesting question is, Perfect for what.

For example, if you are driving on a sunny day, excellent Snellen visual acuity might be the main factor in your satisfaction with your vision. But your traveling companion, who has worse visual acuity than yours, might be happier with her vision in the same circumstances because she is wearing polarized sunglasses with anti-reflective coating that enhance contrast and block glare. Or an athlete who has better than 20 20 vision might struggle with his performance because he doesn t have certain dynamic visual skills that allow him to react to moving objects as quickly as a teammate whose static visual acuity isn t as sharp as his.

See your eye doctor. The first step to maximizing the clarity and comfort of your eyesight in all situations is to see a qualified optometrist or ophthalmologist for a comprehensive eye exam and vision evaluation. If you are interested in finding out if laser vision correction could sharpen your vision better than glasses or contacts, ask to be referred to an experienced LASIK surgeon for a consultation. If you want to maximize your dynamic vision skills for sports and other activities, seek an eye doctor who is a sports vision specialist and ask about sports vision training.

Finally, if your child has 20 20 vision but is struggling with eye strain and other vision problems in school, seek the advice of an eye care provider who specializes in children s vision to have your child evaluated for possible learning-related vision problems. Ready to have your eyes checked. Find an eye doctor near you. Page updated April 2019. Amy Hellem is a writer, editor and researcher who specializes in eye care and other medical fields. How to Get rid of Puffy Eyes. Green eyes The most attractive eye color.

Eye Styes Causes and Symptoms. Eye Twitching 8 Causes and Treatments. Retinal Detachment. Myopia control Is there a cure for nearsightedness. Why myopia progression is a concern. Myopia causes Is your child at risk. Contact lenses for astigmatism Toric, GP and hybrid lenses. Astigmatism and cataract. A toric IOL can fix both. What are bifocal contact lenses for astigmatism.

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Play video about Weekender 38. Refine Your Results By. Play video about Weekender 40. Our Story Blog Careers Corporate Site Global Sites Sell Timex Store Locator. Explore Timex. Customize Family Connect Timex Connected Ironman GPS App Media RelationsAs Seen In Brand Ambassadors. Help Contact Us Check Order Status Shipping Returns Product Registration Instructions Manuals Warranty Repair Promotional Details International Orders California Consumer Privacy Act Site Map.

Be the first to know receive 15 off an order. Thank you for registering. Timex is committed to maintaining the highest accessibility standards in accordance with The Web Content Accessibility Guidelines WCAG. We are just checking to see if you wanted to visit your local country. Shop All Weekender. Overview Offers Promotions Specifications Features Reviews Related Support. WF-1000XM3 Wireless Noise Cancelling Headphones.

Industry-leading noise cancellation and stunning sound in a compact, stylish, truly wireless design. The noise cancelling technology in the WF-1000XM3 is the most advanced ever in truly wireless headphones, with our HD Noise Cancelling Processor QN1e. So you can lose yourself completely in your music. Feed-forward microphone. Feed-back microphone. Dual microphones one feed-forward and one feed-back on the surface of the headphones catch more of the ambient sounds of your surroundings, whether it s in-flight noise, city traffic or office chatter.

Having caught the ambient sound, the dedicated HD Noise Cancelling Processor QN1e gets to work. It not only cancels significantly more noise across almost all frequencies but also uses less power. Packed with advanced audio technology, the WF-1000XM3 noise cancelling earbuds not only deliver noise-free listening but also offer breathtaking sound quality.

A tiny yet powerful 6mm driver unit sits inside the headphones to deliver rich, clear, expansive sound. Stunning sound with minimal distortion. Digital Sound Enhancement Engine HX DSEE HX upscales compressed digital music files, bringing them closer to the quality of High-Resolution Audio. With Bluetooth wireless technology and an ergonomic fit for all-day comfort, the WF-1000XM3 noise cancelling headphones offer true wireless freedom.

A new Bluetooth chip and optimised antenna design provide a stable connection for hour upon hour of high-quality wireless streaming. Watching video content on iq option zig zag smartphone or tablet. The advanced wireless connection on the WF-1000XM3 syncs what you see on screen precisely with what you hear on your headphones for more enjoyable viewing. A WF-1000X L to R Relay BT Transmission. B WF-1000XM3 L R Simultaneous BT Transmission.

A Bluetooth chip, which transmits sound to left and right ears simultaneously, coupled with optimised antenna design ensures a stable connection and outstanding listening. Low audio latency makes for enjoyable viewing too. The placement of the headphones Bluetooth antenna has been optimised to ensure a wider coverage. This helps keep the signal strong for uninterrupted streaming.

The noise cancelling earbuds are ergonomically designed to make contact with three different points on your ear for a secure, comfortable fit. A high-friction rubber surface keeps the noise cancelling earbuds snug and secure in your ear so they won t slip out unexpectedly. With 3 sizes of triple comfort earbuds and 4 sizes of long hybrid silicone rubber earbuds includedyou can find the perfect fit for your ears to maximise sound quality and minimise outside noise. A USB-C charging cable is also included in the box.

With the WF-1000XM3 noise cancelling headphones, the music just keeps on playing. On a full charge, the headphones offer 6 hours of power and the handy charging case provides a further 3x charges to keep you going throughout the day. That s up to 24 hours of noise-free listening. With noise cancelling off, it s even longer 8 hours of power on a full charge, with a further 3x charges from the charging case, for up to 32 hours of play time. Sometimes you need music, fast.

So if your headphones are running low on power, a 10-minute quick charge in the charging case gives you up to 90 minutes of play time. Put your noise cancelling headphones back into the charging case and they ll nestle into place with a satisfying snap thanks to a magnetic interior. A USB-C cable lets you recharge the case quickly and easily, ready for another day s listening. Powered by innovative SENSE ENGINE technology, WF-1000XM3 noise cancelling headphones enhance your listening experience with a range of smart features.

Placing your finger over the earbud turns the volume right down and lets in ambient sound. So you can instantly chat with someone without taking your headphones off. The Sony Headphones Connect app offers Adaptive Sound Control, a smart function that automatically detects what you re up to for example, travelling, walking, or waiting then adjusts ambient sound settings to suit the situation. You can also customise the settings to your preferences.

Take trips without interruption and lose yourself in music with no background noise. Be aware of everything around you, from street to office, while still enjoying music. Hear important announcements while you wait, while reducing other background noise. A proximity sensor in each earbud can detect whether you re wearing one or both and adapts playback accordingly. Take out one earbud and the music automatically pauses on both sides.

Put the earbud back in and the music automatically resumes playing. With the Sony Headphones Connect app, Ambient Sound Control lets you adjust the volume of background sound and gives you the option to allow voices alone to be heard. Meanwhile the Equalizer lets you customise sound levels to suit your music. The multi-talented HD Noise Cancelling Processor QN1e combines Digital Noise Cancelling, 24bit Audio Signal Processing, and a Digital-to-Analog converter with headphone amplifier.

Manage your day, just by asking your favourite voice assistant. Enjoy entertainment, connect with friends, get information, listen to music and notifications, set reminders and more. Conversation flows freely with easy, hands-free calling. The WF-1000XM3 headphones deliver clearer voice quality and you can take calls using either, or both, of the earbuds.

This allows you to alternate their recharging or hear calls clearly in noisy environments. Google Assistant and Amazon Alexa and Siri. WF-1000XM3 headphones feature intuitive touch control settings for example, tap on the left earbud to change from Noise Cancelling to Ambient Sound, or double tap on the right to skip to the next track. If you want to customise your touch controls, no problem.

The Sony Headphones Connect app lets you assign alternative options, such as Google Assistant, Amazon Alexa and music volume control, to each earbud. From the headphones with their clean, minimalist look to the charging case with its tactile, high-end finish, it s all about elegant, understated style. Immerse yourself in sound all around you.

The WF-1000XM3 headphones and carrying case come in a choice of colours to suit your style. As real as if you are there at a live concert or with the artist recording in a studio. With 360 Reality Audio, music has never been so immersive and so real. This headphones let you enjoy 360 Reality Audio. Specifications Features. Digital Noise Cancelling with HD Noise Cancelling Processor QN1e and Dual Noise Sensor Technology. Truly wireless design with BLUETOOTH wireless technology. Up to 24 hours of battery life for all-day listening.

Quick Attention function lets you chat easily without removing your headphones. Modern classic design sits securely in your ears. LED Forward Lighting. If you re trying to figure out what the heck are the best bulbs to put in your next project, you ve come to the right spot. First watch our video, then browse the huge selection of available LED bulbs below.

Shop All LED Fog Light bulbs. Sign up for our newsletter and stay connected. Order by phone 218 755-5200 Mon to Fri 10am - 5pm EST Closed Sat-Sun. Blog About Us Shipping Info Site Map 99,000 Lumen Tundra Shop Instagram Street Use Promotions and Sales. Further Info. Headlights LED Forward Lighting Vehicles Bulb Style Product Types Closeouts. Our Top Brands.

GTR Lighting Morimoto Diode Dynamics JW Speaker KC HiLites Vision X Rigid View All Brands. Contact Us Terms of Service Privacy Policy Refunds Returns Field Destroy Reviews. Accepting payments from. Your security is our priority. 2020 Headlight Revolution All Rights Reserved. While the math behind signal-to-noise ratio is technical, the concept is not, and this value can impact a system s overall sound quality.

You might have come across a listed product specification, or maybe even heard or read a discussion about signal-to-noise ratio. Often abbreviated as SNR or S N, this specification can seem cryptic to the average consumer. Signal-to-Noise Ratio Explained. A signal-to-noise ratio compares a level of signal power to a level of noise power. It is most often expressed as a measurement of decibels dB. Higher numbers generally mean a better specification, since there is more useful information the signal than there is unwanted data the noise.

For example, when an audio component lists a signal-to-noise ratio of 100 dB, it means that the level of the audio signal is 100 dB higher than the level of the noise. A signal-to-noise ratio specification of 100 dB is considerably better than one that is 70 dB or less. Let s also say the refrigerator generates 50 dB of hum consider this as the noise as it keeps its contents cool a loud fridge.

For illustration, let s say that you re having a conversation with someone in a kitchen that also happens to have a particularly loud refrigerator. If the person you are speaking with chooses to converse in whispers consider this as the signal at 30 dB, you won t be able to hear a single word because it is overpowered by the refrigerator hum. Signal-to-Noise Ratio and Why It Matters. So, you ask the person to speak louder, but even at 60 dB, you may still be asking them to repeat things.

Why Signal-to-Noise Ratio Is Important. Specifications for signal-to-noise ratio can be found in many products and components that deal with audio such as speakers, telephones wireless or otherwiseheadphones, microphones, amplifiers, receivers, turntables, radios, CD DVD media players, PC sound cards, smartphones, tablets, and more. Speaking at 90 dB may seem more like a shouting match, but at least words will be clearly heard and understood. That s the idea behind signal-to-noise ratio.

However, not all manufacturers make this value readily known. The actual noise is often characterized as a white or electronic hiss or static, or a low or vibrating hum. Crank the volume of your speakers all the way up while nothing is playing if you hear a hiss, that s the noise, which is often referred to as a noise floor. Just like the refrigerator in the previously described scenario, this noise floor is always there.

So long as the incoming signal is strong and well above the noise floor, then the audio will be able to maintain a higher quality. That s the kind of good signal-to-noise ratio people prefer for a clear and accurate sound. But if a signal happens to be weak, some might think to simply increase the volume in order to boost the output.

Unfortunately, adjusting the volume up and down affects both the noise floor and the signal. The music may get louder, but so will the underlying noise. You would have to boost only the signal strength of the source in order to achieve the desired effect. Some devices feature hardware and or software elements that are designed to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. Unfortunately, all components, even cables, add some level of noise to an audio signal. It s the better ones that are designed to keep the noise floor as low as possible in order to maximize the ratio.

Is SNR the End All Be All. Analog Devices, such as amplifiers and turntables, generally have a lower signal-to-noise ratio than digital devices. It is definitely worth avoiding products with very poor signal-to-noise ratios. However, signal-to-noise ratio should not be used as the only specification to measure the sound quality of components. Frequency response and harmonic distortion should also be taken into consideration.

Be it wireless headsets, hands-free ear pieces, automotive, or the connected home, there s a growing number of use cases for good quality Bluetooth audio. We ve been talking a fair bit about Bluetooth audio lately, mostly because consumers and high-end audio companies are making more noise about it than ever before. What you need to know about Sony s LDAC. Fortunately, a number of companies have us covered with solutions that exceed the so-so performance of out-of-the-box Bluetooth solutions.

Qualcomm s aptX already has a ton of Android phones covered, but multimedia-giant Sony has its own high-end solution called LDAC. This technology had previously only been available on Sony s Xperia range of handsets, but with the roll-out of Android 8. 0 Oreo the Bluetooth codec will be available as part of the core AOSP code for other OEMS to implement, if they wish.

So here s everything that you need to know about Sony s LDAC Bluetooth codec. Higher quality Bluetooth audio. What s interesting about LDAC is that it comes with three different types of connection mode quality priority, normal, and connection priority. Each of these offers a different bitrate, weighing in at 990, 660, and 330 kbps respectively.

So, depending on the type of connection available or the option you pick, there are varying levels of quality. It s clear that the slower bitrates aren t going to give the full 24-bit, 96 kHz quality that LDAC boasts though, so keep that in mind. LDAC supports the transfer of 24-bit, 96 kHz Hi-Res audio files over the air via Bluetooth, with three quality settings to choose from.

High quality standard low-complexity subband codec SBC clocks in at a maximum of 328 kbps, Qualcomm s aptX at 352 kbps, and aptX HD is 576 kbps. On paper then, 990 kbps LDAC transmits a lot more data than any other Bluetooth codec out there. Comparing bitrates is a questionable science, but it does give us a good idea about how much audio data each codec sends per second. And even the low end connection priority setting competes with SBC and aptX, which will cater for those who stream music from the most popular services.

Higher resolution file formats tend to be exported at 96 kHz or greater. Bit-depth -bit the number of bits saved for each audio sample. Sample rate Hz the number of points of data per second in an audio file. A higher bit depth records a signal more accurately. You need two samples to accurately capture any frequency, so audio is sampled at at least twice the limits of human hearing approximately 20 kHz.

Bit-rate kbps usually measured in kbps or mbps. This is the amount of audio data transferred per second over Bluetooth. Sony is keen to make it clear that LDAC transmits up to 3x more data than SBC. However, that s only with the Quality preset, and bit-rates are only part of the picture. The bigger question is how is this data being optimized. However, it s impossible to say exactly how good LDAC is based on this data alone. Sony is keeping its LDAC secret sauce closely under wraps, but to properly put these numbers into context we need to know how the technology works on a lower level.

So far, we can only say that, at it s best, LDAC transmits a lot more data than other Bluetooth codecs. For uncompressed files, this is calculated by multiplying the sample rate by the bit-depth. Increasing the transfer rate. Unfortunately, Sony hasn t published much in the way of in depth materials for how LDAC works. But scouring some older Japanese sources has yielded some details about what Sony is aiming to accomplish with LDAC, at least at its highest bit depth.

First is achieving a high enough Bluetooth transfer speed to reach 990 kbps, and the second is squeezing high resolution audio data into this bandwidth with a minimal loss in quality. There are two major parts to Sony s LDAC. LDAC makes use of Bluetooth s optional Enhanced Data Rate EDR technology to boost data speeds outside of the usual A2DP profile limits. But this is hardware dependant. The first stage is accomplished by using Bluetooth s in-house Enhanced Data Rate EDR option, which was introduced all the way back with Bluetooth 2.

0 to increase maximum speeds. EDR speeds are not usually used by A2DP audio profiles, but the spec is rated up to 3 Mbps. Although in reality, 1. Hence why Sony s LDAC sits just under this threshold at 990 kbps. 4 Mbps is mostly achievable, with 1 Mbps being considered the minimum stable connection. I should point out that EDR is an optional part of even newer Bluetooth 4.

x devices, as the focus has been on decreasing power consumption for the most part. So not every chip, and therefore not every phone, will necessarily support Sony s LDAC at the highest quality setting. Bluetooth 5 supports 2 Mbps low energy speeds out of the box, and is also backward compatible with EDR versions of Bluetooth, but again this higher speed is optional. LDAC, SBC, and aptX share a common idea. Now for LDAC s compression technology, which appears to be an intelligent combination of lossless and lossy techniques to maximise sound quality at 990 kbps.

Those who are familiar with the human auditory system will be aware that hearing sensitivity begins to quickly fall off after 16 kHz, meaning that a lot of the data transferred in a 96 kHz file 48 kHz of audible data per Nyquist Theory is incredibly difficult, if not impossible to hear. And it s all to do with varying the bit-depth at different frequencies, which preserves significantly more data than psycho-acoustic compression algorithms, such as those used by MP3.

Furthermore, we also know that 24-bits of data is more than can be physically reproduced by the best audio hardware, so these large files are carting around tons of extra data we simply can t hear. Sony s LDAC doesn t go so far as to just chop out these very high frequencies, but iq option zig zag does reduce their bit-depth at the quantization stage. In other words, there s more noise present at very high frequencies, but that s not a problem once we take into account the limitations of human hearing and the fact that we don t need anywhere near like as much detail at these very high frequencies.

Normal PCM files have a set bit-rate across all frequencies. But files can be compressed by reducing the bit-depth at higher frequencies, with minimal impact on audio quality. Human hearing is most sensitive around 3 kHz, so reducing the level of detail at higher frequencies is an intelligent way to save on data size. The above basic example removes one bit of accuracy for each 6dB loss in sensitivity, which would be imperceivable.

Sub-band coding is used in a variety of codecs, including SBC, MP3, AAC, aptX, and LDAC. Many codecs use this for psychoacoustic masking, but aptX and LDAC only adjust the bit-depth in line with hearing sensitivity. There are some notable differences between LDAC and aptX though. While aptX has just four sub-bands, LDAC appears to max out at 16, according to the AOSP library s header file.

This has the benefit of adding in extra steps and therefore smoothing out the noise transition between each band. What isn t clear is whether LDAC is using a differential transmission to save on data size though, like Qualcomm does. Some quick math suggests that you could fit in an average of just over 5 bits at 96 kHz into a 990 kbps data stream, without any additional compression. Clearly, that s a long way off sending a full Hi-Res file, but remember that LDAC reserves the bulk of the bits for the audible frequency range.

Bit-depth noise As we know that a higher bit-depth allows us to more accurately record audio data, the other side of the coin means that a lower bit-depth reduces accuracy. Split-band encoding While audio data is normally encoded in the time domain, processing data in the frequency domain makes it possible to quickly filter a signal by its frequency. Put another way, a lack of accuracy introduces more random noise into the signal.

Using a series of overlapping filters, it s possible to split a signal into multiple parts, process it, and recombine it later. Huffman encoding Used in a range of data compression tasks, Huffman encoding shrinks data sizes by assigning the smallest code to the most commonly used data and larger code to uncommon data. A trawl through the AOSP libldac library also suggests that Sony s codec is using some form of lossless Huffman coding in conjunction with re-quantization to slim down file sizes.

This means that additional lossless compression is used to trim the file down further, in a similar vein to FLAC and even part of the MP3 s encoding pipeline. A conceptual diagram of the variable bit allocation method in LDAC compared to lossless audio. This is likely also what s helping to shrink down Sony s transmission size further. Now, one of the benefits of this type of encoding is that smaller file sizes can be passed with even less compression.

Sony also says that LDAC optimizes its sub-bands dynamically based on the source material, so presumably the codec can identify file types and quality ahead of time to optimize its packet size and bit-depth accordingly. So a 44kHz CD quality track, for example, can be split into the same number of bands but be sent with a larger bit-depth over its smaller frequency range. The LDAC library actually specifies that 44. 2 kHz files are sent at 909 kbps max, while 48 and 96 kHz tracks use the full 990 kbps, so it s clearly content aware.

Based on that and the graphic above, it appears that a 16 bit, 44. 1 kHz CD quality file would pass through the codec unaltered, as the available bit-depth more than exceeds the require 16-bits. This is also backed up by Sony s marketing material claims, which shows that the output iq option zig zag its compression provides the same as CD quality. 1 kHz files without losing any quality although note it says same as CD quality over a 990 kbps Bluetooth connection, but there is definitely some loss with Hi-Res sized files.

Unlike aptX, LDAC is variable bitrate. Sony claims that LDAC can pass 16 bit, 44. So quality will vary based on the Bluetooth connection and hardware, just like SBC often does. Another difference between Sony and Qualcomm s technology is that while aptX is a constant bandwidth codec, LDAC is variable and works at a variety of bitrates, depending on the available hardware, connection speed, and connection strength. So as Sony s bit depth decreases, the amount of compression and noise increases, whereas aptX is set to always work at the same constant bitrate.

While Sony s option is more flexible, it will add some workload to the encoding and decoding stage and makes it a little harder for consumers to know exactly what they re getting at all times. LDAC uses the same sub-band techniques at its 300 and 600 kbps settings, however Sony is simply able to change the quantization stage to reduce the bit-depth of its different frequency bands further.

The company s 300 kbps setting will certainly send files at lower than CD quality, but it will be interesting to hear if this compression technique is better than MP3 or AAC. This is because even at low bitrates, there s no major hacking up of the signal, simply the introduction of extra low level noise. Sony s DSEE HX upscaling tech is making its way into wireless audio products, and could be a powerful tool when used in conjunction with LDAC. There s also another interesting Sony technology that s worth mentioning, especially as we re talking about high frequency content.

Sony s audio products now come with its DSEE HX upscaling technology built in, and it s even included in some of the company s wireless headphones and speakers. Sony s DSEE HX is a signal processing technology that attempts to restore lossy files, like an MP3 or a Bluetooth data stream, to reproduce high resolution content that s been lost during compression. There s some software trickery going on based on data collection from real world audio samples, but obviously it s impossible to completely accurately reproduce lost data.

Still, remember that even though LDAC is lossy it still retains some high frequency data, albeit at lower detail. But using this extra data that isn t available in more heavily compressed file types should empower Sony s DSEE HX upscaler to achieve even better results than when using an MP3, etc. So it might be something to consider when picking out any LDAC products. Sony s engineers claim they can t detect a difference between Hi-Res audio files and LDAC DSEE HX upsampling.

But obviously we ll have to check that for ourselves. LDAC and Android Oreo. One of the interesting discoveries with the unveiling of Android O was how much input Sony had in helping improve stock Android, along with a number of other OEMs. The company contributed some 250 bug fixes and 30 new features, one of which is its LDAC. Google confirmed LDAC is now part of the Android AOSP base code, which means that it s free for all OEMs to integrate into their smartphones if they wish.

Third party hardware manufacturers require a LDAC license, and even those looking to use Sony s AOSP code need to pass certification. The only detail we re not sure of if is there s a licensing cost that OEMs will have to sign up for, as there is with Qualcomm s aptX which is also supported in Android Oreo s Bluetooth codec settings. From the support page, we can see that corporate users will need to contact Sony to license the technology, and phone and tablet manufacturers looking to the AOSP code are required to pass a certification process, but any costs involved are hidden.

Now of course, just like Qualcomm s aptX, you re going to need a set of LDAC compatible headphones or speakers to connect your handset up to as well. The technology is currently only found inside Sony s own range of audio gear, although this does extend to its home cinema range, Walkman products and speakers, as well as the company s wireless headphones. Unfortunately, LDAC equipped pieces of audio gear are a little hard to come by. For Sony, the offer to support LDAC as part of Android Oreo makes a lot of business sense.

If more customers become familiar with its codec across a wider range of phones, then they re more likely to consider buying LDAC compatible audio products. We ll just have to see how this all plays out once OEMs start rolling out their own versions of Android Oreo. A word on quality. As always with these audio articles, I like to end by putting all of this into perspective in terms of your music collection and hardware. As always, LDAC is not a cure to instantly boost audio quality, as much of the final result ultimately depends on your source material and the quality of your headphones or speakers.

LDAC isn t going to make a huge difference when streaming music from so-so quality services such as Spotify or Pandora, and it can t suddenly make a sub- 99 headset sound like a more expensive piece of kit. As with aptX, it does offer better connection quality than SBC regardless of what you re listening to. LDAC goes further by catering to a range of listeners with its variable bitrates, ranging from those listening to FLAC and Tidal to those who prefer the convenience of free lossy streaming services.

Sony s LDAC looks like an incredibly powerful Bluetooth codec and one that will certainly help to please those who are picky about their audio quality. We ll have to go hands on with SBC, aptX, and LDAC in the near future to definitively state which is best. CD quality is 16-bits, but high resolution files extend this to 24-bits. Wi-Fi range extenders catch the wireless signal from your router then rebroadcast it, helping to strengthen the signal in another area of the house.

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