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Offloading to WiFi networks is expected to grow 16-fold between 2011 and 2016according to market research consultancy iGR. We all know that operators are desperately looking for ways to provide their customers with high- quality, reliable data whilst relieving congestion on their macro networks, and are looking at either WiFi or small cells to achieve this. But, considering that WiFi offloading is predominantly driven by users manually choosing a WiFi connection rather than their mobile broadband connection, is this increase really likely to happen.
But to make this work, operators need the right equipment in both the network and the handsets. So how realistic is this 16-fold increase. According to iGR, it will if a move is made to operator-driven offloading in which the mobile operator actively switches 3G or 4G traffic to a WiFi network. And will operators prefer to invest in WiFi rather than small cells.
These key questions are being addressed at the Small Cell and WiFi Offloading Strategies event in December. Find out the pros and cons of using either small cells or WiFi as a sustainable offloading solution and how you can deploy it quickly and effectively without disrupting your network. When it s all about providing seamless connectivity and a great customer experience, where would you put your money WiFi or small cells.
This entry was posted on Wednesday, September 26th, 2012 at 1 34 pm and is filed under Broadband, Interconnection, Mobile, Mobile data. Broker recommendations Binary Options broker-best broker. Judith Huggins. Geld verdienen satt und einfach bei FinMax Broker 100 Bonus. Wednesday, February 28, 2018. Tuesday, February 27, 2018. bis zu 900 Rendite. The Secret about Binary Options Trading that nobody wants you to Know. Binäre Optionen Templates Metatrader auf MyBinaereOptionen.
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Reggae Central Presents a Tribute to Toots Hibbert. Sunday September 13 2-5 PM on KPFK. Toots Hibbert, lead singer of the classic Reggae group Toots the Maytals passed on September 11 from complications of Covid-19. His contribution to reggae music was enormous including the first single with the word Reggae in the title in 1969 and a ground-breaking tour with The Rolling Stones in the 70 s that helped introduce Reggae to America to Grammy-winning releases and his latest album Got To Be Tough which came out just last week.
News, Articles Editorials. Chuck Foster will be hosting a three hour special dedicated to the music of Toots Hibbert. The initial results are in, and they show that non-white racial and ethnic groups are experiencing the gamut of pandemic fallout at much higher rates. Labor Day is a celebration of how organized labor won tremendous benefits for the American people. How the collective struggle of working people established a standard of dignity for all workers, against the wishes of bosses and investors - that is, against capitalism itself, against the most powerful force in modern times.
As we head toward fall, and COVID-19 persists, experts forecast how our lives may look and the challenges we are likely to confront. Although the crowds were impacted by the coronavirus pandemic, many marched, walked, skated, and even drove in a car caravan retracing the route of the original march.
As a reporter for Pacifica Radio, KPFK News, I was granted access to the LA County Sheriff s secret files on the event s organizers and leaders. Here s my story. Information on the candidates, news, the stakes, and endorsements on all the California districts that are on the November 2020 ballot are listed here. California s November election will feature 12 statewide ballot measures.
Featuring explanation videos and full descriptions and information on each of the propositions. Hundreds of people gathered across East Los Angeles to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the Chicano Moratorium, the largest anti-war protest in the city at the time. Democracy Now Newsfeed. Details were only revealed during a CEO call with investors, and everyone was left to guess what went wrong, writes Ed Silverman, senior writer at the health news site STAT, which broke the story.
AstraZeneca paused its Phase 3 COVID-19 vaccine trial after a woman in the trial developed severe neurological symptoms consistent with transverse myelitis, or inflammation of the spinal cord. Silverman says the halting of the U. trial raises several issues, including whether pharmaceutical companies are being pushed to move faster than is safe. Is the FDA being pushed to authorize or approve a vaccine faster than it should. Since the police killing of George Floyd in May sparked a nationwide uprising against police brutality, armed white supremacists have taken to the streets of U.
cities in response to Black Lives Matter protests. Organizing against systemic racism has been met with apparent attempts by the Trump administration to cover up white supremacist violence. As the world races to find a COVID-19 vaccine, one of the most promising vaccine trials has hit a major roadblock. We speak to legendary Black feminist scholar Barbara Smith, founder of the Combahee River Collective, about her proposal for an antiracist program called the Hamer-Baker Plan named for Fannie Lou Hamer and Ella Baker to eradicate white supremacy in the U.
I m not just talking about white supremacist groups or organized white supremacy, Smith says. What I m talking about is a system that actually dictates and shapes every aspect of life in the U. As the United States marks 19 years since the September 11 terrorist attacks that killed nearly 3,000 people, a new report finds at least 37 million people in eight countries have been displaced since the start of the so-called global war on terrorism since 2001. The Costs of War Project at Brown University also found more than 800,000 people have been killed since U.
forces began fighting in Afghanistan, Iraq, Syria, Pakistan and Yemen, at a cost of 6. 4 trillion to U. has played a disproportionate role in waging war, in launching war and in perpetuating war over the last 19 years, says report co-author David Vine, a professor of anthropology at American University. FEATURING NANCY J. Rising Up With Sonali. ALTMAN During his Presidential campaign in 2016 Donald Trump promised he would never cut Social Security and claimed he was the only Republican candidate to do so.
But since then Trump has made several overtures toward cutting the program that most Americans rely on. In fact, most recently when Congress failed. FEATURING ARIE PERLINGER Rightwing extremists in the United States have always wrought hatred and violence but rarely been targeted by government surveillance or the disproportionate media coverage reserved for terrorists of the non-white, non-Christian persuasion.
As fires continue to rage across the Western coast of the United States, a record breaking 3 million acres have now burned across California. But during Donald Trump s presidency the resurgence of armed rightwing violence and extremism is fueling fears of a civil. The Los Angeles Times reports that, On Thursday, the August Complex the product of 37 fires in and around Tehama County became the largest ever recorded in California at. The BradBlog. On today s BradCast, it was not a good day for those who believe in free, fair, honest, overseeable and safe democracy.
On the other hand, it was a great day for Republicans. Audio link to full show is posted below. We ve got a boatload of court rulings from almost half a dozen states to try and. We warned you weeks ago to buckle up for what was to come between then and Election Day. On today s BradCast, a mountain of reminders as to why we issued the warning, as we hope that everyone remains buckled up until the madness comes to a full and complete stop.
IN TODAY S RADIO REPORT Unprecedented wildfires explode across the Western U. ; Yes, man-made climate change is to blame; PLUS Trump trolls for votes in Florida by flip-flopping on offshore drilling ban. All that and more in today s Green News Report. PLEASE CLICK HERE TO HELP US WITH A MUCH-NEEDED DONATION to celebrate 1000 episodes of.
Sojourner Truth Headlines. Background Briefing with Ian Masters. Trump s Minions Bury Intelligence on How the Russians Are helping Reelect the Boss Trump is Losing His Base Who Are Suffering in the Healthcare Crisis He is Worsening How the Germans Confronted Their Past Evils Compared to Us Facing Our Legacy of Slavery and Racial Hatred Which Trump is Reviving backgroundbriefing. org donate twitter. com ianmastersmedia facebook. Our Spectacularly Stupid President Who Would Rather Let People Die Than Panic Them The Unprecedented Wildfires in California, Oregon and Washington An Expert on Voter Turnout backgroundbriefing.
Calling Out Trump s Racist Reelection Strategy Time For the Democrats to Get Tough With the Mafia Boss in the White House Senior Republicans Try to Stop Trump From Trashing Mail-in Balloting backgroundbriefing. Strength Thru Unity. PRESS PLAY TO WATCH Conference begins 5mins into this video This event will also air on KPFK 90. 7 FM Friday Aug 28th at 5pm PST. STU s prominent guests include Jonathan Nez, president of the Navajo Nation ; Dr. Elena Rios, president of the National Hispanic Medical Association ; Thomas Johnson, CEO of Family Matters of Greater Washington ; Michael Kurima, president of the Japanese American Citizens LeagueSan Diego Chapter, Christina Mora, co-Director of Berkeley s Institute of Government Studies and other thought leaders.
Shirley Jahad of USC s Annenberg School of Communication and an award-winning public media journalist will moderate STU s conversation. A new poll from UC Berkeley s Institute for Governmental Studies reveals this unequal deadly threat on minority communities read the full story here An Unequal Threat In-State Black and Latino s people report bigger impact, poll finds. Previous Strength Thru Unity. From the General Manager. Oh, how they ve wanted to stop us. Every day KPFK opens up a new controversy, a new societal pain point, a new cultural, political or community insight, and new revelations about everything that means something in your life.
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Children s Stories Listen to excerpts from treasured children s stories. To profit from neutral stock price action near the strike price of the short calls center strike with limited risk. Example of long butterfly spread with calls. Buy 1 XYZ 95 call at 6. 40 Sell 2 XYZ 100 calls at 3. 60 Buy 1 XYZ 105 call at 1. 45 Net cost 1. A long butterfly spread with calls is a three-part strategy that is created by buying one call at a lower strike price, selling two calls with a higher strike price and buying one call with an even higher strike price.
All calls have the same expiration date, and the strike prices are equidistant. In the example above, one 95 Call is purchased, two 100 Calls are sold and one 105 Call is purchased. This strategy is established for a net debit, and both the potential profit and maximum risk are limited. The maximum profit is realized if the stock price is equal to the strike price of the short calls center strike on the expiration date.
The maximum risk is the net cost of the strategy including commissions and is realized if the stock price is above the highest strike price or below the lowest strike price at expiration. This is an advanced strategy because the profit potential is small in dollar terms and because costs are high. Given that there are three strike prices, there are multiple commissions in addition to three bid-ask spreads when opening the position and again when closing it.
As a result, it is essential to open and close the position at good prices. It is important to ensure the risk reward ratio including commissions is favorable or acceptable. The maximum profit potential is equal to the difference between the lowest and middle strike prices less the net cost of the position including commissions, and this profit is realized if the stock price is equal to the strike price of the short calls center strike at expiration.
In the example above, the difference between the lowest and middle strike prices is 5. 00, and the net cost of the strategy is 1. 25, not including commissions. 75 less commissions. The maximum risk is the net cost of the strategy including commissions, and there are two possible outcomes in which a loss of this amount is realized. If the stock price is below the lowest strike price at expiration, then all calls expire worthless and the full cost of the strategy including commissions is lost.
Also, if the stock price is above the highest strike price at expiration, then all calls are in the money and the butterfly spread position has a net value of zero at expiration. As iqoption tutorial result, the full cost of the position including commissions is lost. There are two breakeven points. The lower breakeven point is the stock price equal to the lowest strike price plus the cost of the position including commissions.
The upper breakeven point is the stock price equal to the highest strike price minus the cost of the position. 25 Stock Price at Expiration Long 1 95 Call Profit Loss at Expiration Short 2 100 Calls Profit Loss at Expiration Long 1 105 Call Profit Loss At Expiration Net Profit Loss at Expiration 110 8. A long butterfly spread with calls realizes its maximum profit if the stock price equals the center strike price on the expiration date.
The forecast, therefore, can either be neutral or modestly bullish, depending on the relationship of the stock price to the center strike price when the position is established. Profit Loss diagram and table long butterfly spread with calls. If the stock price is at or near the center strike price when the position is established, then the forecast must be for unchanged, or neutral, price action.
If the stock price is below the center strike price when the position is established, then the forecast must be for the stock price iqoption tutorial rise to the center strike price at expiration modestly bullish. While one can imagine a scenario in which the stock price is above the center strike price and a long butterfly spread with calls would profit from bearish stock price action, it is most likely that another strategy would be a more profitable choice for a bearish forecast.
A long butterfly spread with calls is the strategy of choice when the forecast is for stock price action near the center strike price of the spread, because long butterfly spreads profit from time decay. However, unlike a short straddle or short strangle, the potential risk of a long butterfly spread is limited. Also, the commissions for a butterfly spread are higher than for a straddle or strangle. The tradeoff is that a long butterfly spread has a much lower profit potential in dollar terms than a comparable short straddle or short strangle.
Long butterfly spreads are sensitive to changes in volatility see Impact of Change in Volatility. The net price of a butterfly spread falls when volatility rises and rises when volatility falls. Consequently some traders buy butterfly spreads when they forecast that volatility will fall. Since the volatility in option prices tends to fall sharply after earnings reports, some traders will buy a butterfly spread immediately before the report.
The potential profit is high in percentage terms and risk is limited to the cost of the position including commissions. Success of this approach to buying butterfly spreads requires that the stock price stay between the lower and upper strikes price of the butterfly. If the stock price rises or falls too much, then a loss will be incurred. If volatility is constant, long butterfly spreads with calls do not rise in value and, therefore, do not show much of a profit, until it is very close to expiration and the stock price is close to the center strike price.
In contrast, short straddles and short strangles begin to show at least some profit early in the expiration cycle as long as the stock price does not move out of the profit range. Furthermore, while the potential profit of a long butterfly spread is a high percentage profit on the capital at risk, the typical dollar cost of one butterfly spread is low.
As a result, it is often necessary to trade a large number of butterfly spreads if the goal is to earn a profit in dollars equal to the hoped-for dollar profit from a short straddle or strangle. Also, one should not forget that the risk of a long butterfly spread is still 100 of the cost of the position. Therefore, if the stock price begins to fall below the lowest strike price or to rise above the highest strike price, a trader must be ready to close out the position before a large percentage loss is incurred.
Patience and trading discipline are required when trading long butterfly spreads. Patience is required because this strategy profits from time decay, and stock price action can be unsettling as it rises and falls around the center strike price as expiration approaches. Trading discipline is required, because, as expiration approaches, small changes in stock price can have a high percentage impact on the price of a butterfly spread. Traders must, therefore, be disciplined in taking partial profits if possible and also in taking small losses before the losses become big.
Delta estimates how much a position will change in price as the stock price changes. Long calls have positive deltas, and short calls have negative deltas. Regardless of time to expiration and regardless of stock price, the net delta of a long butterfly spread remains close to zero until one or two days before expiration. If the stock price is below the lowest strike price in a long butterfly spread with calls, then the net delta is slightly positive.
If the stock price is above the highest strike price, then the net delta is slightly negative. Overall, a long butterfly spread with calls does not profit from stock price change; it profits from time decay as long as the stock price is between the highest and lowest strikes. Long options, therefore, rise in price and make money when volatility rises, and short options rise in price and lose money when volatility rises.
When volatility falls, the opposite happens; long options lose money and short options make money. Vega is a measure of how much changing volatility affects the net price of a position. Long butterfly spreads with calls have a negative vega. This means that the price of a long butterfly spread falls when volatility rises and the spread loses money. When volatility falls, the price of a long butterfly spread rises and the spread makes money.
Long butterfly spread with calls. Long butterfly spreads, therefore, should be purchased when volatility is high and forecast to decline. This is known as time erosion. Theta is a measure of how much time erosion affects the net price of a position. Long option positions have negative theta, which means they lose money from time erosion, if other factors remain constant; and short options have positive theta, which means they make money from time erosion.
A long butterfly spread with calls has a net positive theta as long as the stock price is in a range between the lowest and highest strike prices. If the stock price moves out of this range, however, the theta becomes negative as expiration approaches. Stock options in the United States can be exercised on any business day, and holders of short stock option positions have no control over when they will be required to fulfill the obligation. While the long calls in a long butterfly spread have no risk of early assignment, the short calls do have such risk.
Early assignment of stock options is generally related to dividends. Short calls that are assigned early are generally assigned on the day before the ex-dividend date. If one short call is assigned, then 100 shares of stock are sold short and the long calls lowest and highest strike prices remain open. If a short stock position is not wanted, it can be closed in one of two ways. First, 100 shares can be purchased in the marketplace.
Second, the short 100-share position can be closed by exercising the lowest-strike long call. Therefore, it is generally preferable to buy shares to close the short stock position and then sell the long call. One caveat is commissions. Buying shares to cover the short stock position and then selling the long call is only advantageous if the commissions are less than the time value of the long call.
Remember, however, that exercising a long call will forfeit the time value of that call. This two-part action recovers the time value of the long call. If both of the short calls are assigned, then 200 shares of stock are sold short and the long calls lowest and highest strike prices remain open. Again, if a short stock position is not wanted, it can be closed in one of two ways.
Either 200 shares can be purchased in the market place, or both long calls can be exercised. However, as discussed above, since exercising a long call forfeits the time value, it is generally preferable to buy shares to close the short stock position and then sell the long calls. The caveat, as mentioned above, is commissions. Buying shares to cover the short stock position and then selling the long calls is only advantageous if the commissions are less than the time value of the long calls.
Note, however, that whichever method is used, buying stock and sell the long call or exercising the long call, the date of the stock purchase will be one day later than the date of the short sale. Assignment of a short option might also trigger a margin call if there is not sufficient account equity to support the stock position created. The position at expiration of a long butterfly spread with calls depends on the relationship of the stock price to the strike prices of the spread.
If the stock price is above the lowest strike and at or below the center strike, then the lowest strike long call is exercised. The result is that 100 shares of stock are purchased and a stock position of long 100 shares is created. If the stock price is above the center strike and at or below the highest strike, then the lowest-strike long call is exercised and the two middle-strike short calls are assigned.
If the stock price is below the lowest strike price, then all calls expire worthless, and no position is created. The net result is a short position of 100 shares. If the stock price is above the highest strike, then both long calls lowest and highest strikes are exercised and the two short calls middle strike are assigned. The result is that 200 shares are purchased and 200 shares are sold. The net result is no position, although several stock buy and sell commissions have been incurred.
A long butterfly spread with calls can also be described as the combination of a bull call spread and a bear call spread. The bull call spread is the long lowest-strike call combined with one of the short center-strike calls, and the bear call spread is the other short center-strike call combined with the long highest-strike call. The term butterfly in the strategy name is thought to have originated from the profit-loss diagram.
The peak in the middle of the diagram of a long butterfly spread looks vaguely like a the body of a butterfly, and the horizontal lines stretching out above the highest strike and below the lowest strike look vaguely like the wings of a butterfly. A short butterfly spread with calls is a three-part strategy that is created by selling one call at a lower strike price, buying two calls with a higher strike price and selling one call with an even higher strike price.
A long butterfly spread with puts is a three-part strategy that is created by buying one put at a higher strike price, selling two puts with a lower strike price and buying one put with an even lower strike price. The result is that 100 shares are purchased and 200 shares are sold. Calls may be used as an alternative to buying stock outright. A long call gives you the right to buy the underlying stock at strike price A. You can profit if the stock rises, without taking on all of the downside risk that would result from owning the stock.
It is also possible to gain leverage over a greater number of shares than you could afford to buy outright because calls are always less expensive than the stock itself. But be careful, especially with short-term out-of-the-money calls. If you buy too many option contracts, you are actually increasing your risk.
Options may expire worthless and you can lose your entire investment, whereas if you own the stock it will usually still be worth something. Except iqoption tutorial certain banking stocks that shall remain nameless. Options Guy s Tips. Don t go overboard with the leverage you can get when buying calls. A general rule of thumb is this If you re used to buying 100 shares of stock per trade, buy one option contract 1 contract 100 shares. If you re comfortable buying 200 shares, buy two option contracts, and so on.
If you do purchase a call, you may wish to consider buying the contract in-the-money, since it s likely to have a larger delta that is, changes in the option s value will correspond more closely with any change in the stock price. Try looking for a delta of. 80 or greater if possible. In-the-money options are more expensive because they have intrinsic value, but you get what you pay for. Buy a call, strike price A Generally, the stock price will be at or above strike A.
Who Should Run It. You can learn more about delta in Meet the Greeks. Veterans and higher. NOTE Many rookies begin trading options by purchasing out-of-the-money short-term calls. That s because they tend to be cheap, and you can buy a lot of them. However, they re probably not the best way to get your feet wet. The Rookie s Corner suggests other plays more suited to beginning options traders. When to Run It.
You re bullish as a matador. Break-even at Expiration. Strike A plus the cost of the call. The Sweet Spot. The stock goes through the roof. Maximum Potential Profit. There s a theoretically unlimited profit potential, if the stock goes to infinity. Please note We ve never seen a stock go to infinity. Maximum Potential Loss. Risk is limited to the premium paid for the call option.
Ally Invest Margin Requirement. After the trade is paid for, no additional margin is required. As Time Goes By. For this strategy, time decay is the enemy. It will negatively affect the value of the option you bought. After the iqoption tutorial is established, you want implied volatility to increase. It will increase the value of the option you bought, and also reflects an increased possibility of a price swing without regard for direction but you ll hope the direction is up.
Check your strategy with Ally Invest tools. Use the Profit Loss Calculator to establish break-even points, evaluate how your strategy might change as expiration approaches, and analyze the Option Greeks. Remember if out-of-the-money options are cheap, they re usually cheap for a reason.
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06.03.2020 : 02:44 Gardadal:
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