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We Do Not Solicit Funds TradePass does not solicit funds nor will TradePass accept any funds for any reason other than the subscription fees for the trading signal service. TradePass full time trading career began in 1993 and spanned 16 years. TradePass retired from full time trading in 2009. Intrigued by binary options products, TradePass returned to trading in 2017. 1993 1996 Primary Markets Traded. Ags CBOT Deutchmark and Swiss Franc CME 30 yr Bond and 2 yr Treasuries CBOT.

1996 2009 Primary Markets Traded. Designed and developed proprietary trading systems for multiple markets for screen trading 96 09 Deutchmark, Swiss Franc, British Pound 96 99 Energies and Softs 01 05 30 yr and S P 500 96 05 FOREX 05 09. 2017 Present Primary Markets Traded. The Live Sessions on Crowdcast have been discontinued as of 10 29 18 due to lack of attendance and feedback from our Beta Test User Group.

Questions From Our Users. However, the Live Session Replays will continue to be available for viewing via Crowdcast. A TradePass only trades during timeframes when there are no scheduled economic news releases. and Asia, which is historically a profitable time to execute positions. In addition, the slower part of the session occurs towards the latter part of the morning, both in the U. Our trading signals will generally align with those times during the morning where there is both sufficient volume to maximize position profit potential, and a lower risk of the markets being affected violently by news items.

A While we strive to be diligent and effective with the transparency of our trades, TradePass is subject to the same technology fails that everyone experiences on a daily basis. In 99 of the cases of missing trade replays, the screen recording software we employ failed for one reason or another. The other 1 is user error. Contact TradePass. Please use this form to inquire about subscription pricing issues, questions about the Live Signal Alert service, or technical questions you may have.

PLEASE NOTE Tradepass does not offer instruction or advisory services of any kind. Questions regarding strategies, systems, methods or other position related topics will not be answered. Email us anytime at hello tradepass. 2017-2020 TradePass All rights reserved. Software-Defined GPS Signal Simulator. GPS-SDR-SIM generates GPS baseband signal data streams, which can be converted to RF using software-defined radio SDR platforms, such as ADALM-Pluto, bladeRF, HackRF, and USRP.

Windows build instructions. Start Visual Studio. On the Solution Explorer at right, add gpssim. Create an empty project for a console application. c and getopt. c to the Souce Files folder. Select Release in Solution Configurations drop-down list. Build the solution. Building with GCC. Using bigger user motion files. In order to use user motion files with more than 30000 samples at 10Hzthe USER_MOTION_SIZE variable can be set to the maximum time of the user motion file in seconds.

It is advisable to do this using make so gps-sdr-bin can update the size when needed. This variable can also be set when compiling directly with GCC. Generating the GPS signal file. A user-defined trajectory can be specified in either a CSV file, which contains the Earth-centered Earth-fixed ECEF user positions, or an NMEA GGA stream.

The sampling rate of the user motion has to be 10Hz. The user is also able to assign a static location directly through the command line. The user specifies the GPS satellite constellation through a GPS broadcast ephemeris file. This simulated range data is then used to generate the digitized I Q samples for the GPS signal. The bladeRF and ADALM-Pluto command line interface requires I Q pairs stored as signed 16-bit integers, while the hackrf_transfer and gps-sdr-sim-uhd.

py support signed bytes. HackRF, bladeRF and ADALM-Pluto require 2. 6 MHz sample rate, while the USRP2 requires 2. 5 MHz an even integral decimator of 100 MHz. The maximum simulation duration time is defined by USER_MOTION_SIZE to prevent the output file from getting too large. The output file size can be reduced by using -b 1 option to store four 1-bit I Q samples into a single byte. You can use bladeplayer for bladeRF to playback the compressed file.

The user motion can be specified in either dynamic or static mode. The simulated GPS signal file, named gpssim. bincan be loaded into the bladeRF for playback as shown below. You can also execute these commands via the bladeRF-cli script option as below. UHD supported devices tested with USRP2 only. LimeSDR in case of 1 Msps 1-bit file, to get full BaseBand dynamic and low RF power.

The ADALM-Pluto device is expected to have its network interface up and running and is accessible via pluto. local by default. Copyright 2015-2018 Takuji Ebinuma Distributed under the MIT License. Contributors 16. The size, update rate, power requirements, these are all features that you ll want to look into before you choose which hardware is right for your project. GPS Buying Guide. This is something you need to consider if your project is supposed to be pocket-sized.

GPS modules are getting ever-smaller Your tiny, tiny cell phone has one in it. but remember that in general, the antenna has to shrink to fit the module which will affect things like lock time and accuracy. Update Rate. The update rate of a GPS module is basically how often it recalculates and reports its position. The standard for most devices is 1Hz Only once per second.

The fact is, unless you re on an airplane or something, you re probably not going fast enough to have changed position significantly in the past second. There are a lot of options when it comes to GPS hardware so it can be hard to just pick one and start logging locations. However, UAVs and other flying or fast vehicles may require faster update rates to stay on track. 5 and even 10Hz update rates are becoming more and more available for cheap. Keep in mind, though, that a fast update rate means that there s more NMEA sentences flying out of the module, some microprocessors will be quickly overwhelmed trying to parse that much data.

Power Requirements. On the plus side, if you have a module that runs at 5 or 10Hz, it can usually be configured to run at an easier pace. so they can use a lot of power. On average, around 30mA at 3. If someone asked you to crunch a bunch of numbers that you had to get from satellites in orbit around the Earth and use that information to figure out where you were, you d flat out refuse.

Keep in mind, also, that GPS antennas usually enlist the help of an amplifier that draws extra power. If a unit appears to have super-groovy-low power consumption, make sure there s an antenna attached. It s a lot of work, and yet that s exactly what these tiny GPS units are doing multiple times per second.

Even though there are only so many GPS satellites in view at any given time, the number of channels that your module runs will affect your time to first fix. Since the module doesn t know which satellites are in view, the more frequencies that you can check at once, the faster you ll find a fix. Many modules come with this chunk of something on top of it. After you get a lock, some modules will shut down the extra blocks of channels to save power.

If you don t mind waiting a little longer for a lock, 12 or 14 channels will work just fine for tracking. That is a precisely made chunk of ceramic. Each antenna is finely trimmed to pickup the GPS L1 frequency of 1. Sound expensive. Well, they make a lot of them. There are some other GPS antenna technologies chip, helicalbut they are not as common, a bit more expensive, and require significantly more amplification and filtering.

Oh hey - as I mentioned, the satellites are in the sky like. 12,552 miles above you, so be sure and point the ceramic towards the sky, ok. GPS antennas are getting better, and you can certainly get GPS signal indoors, but it s hit-or-miss. I hear there are reception problems in the urban canyons of places like New York City. If you can get near a window - it will help a lot.

How accurate is GPS. Well it varies a bit, but you can usually find out where you are, anywhere in the world, within 30 seconds, down to - 10m. I say - because it can vary between modules, time of day, clarity of reception, etc. Most modules can get it down to -3m, but if you need sub meter or centimeter accuracy, it gets really expensive. I ve heard stories of such fabled GPS receivers, but I have never gotten to touch one. Someone please prove us wrong. GPS Breakout Boards.

SparkFun GPS Breakout - NEO-M9N, Chip Antenna Qwiic. The SparkFun NEO-M9N GPS Breakout with on-board chip antenna is a high quality, GPS board with equally impressive configurati. Cold 24 sec, Hot 2 sec. 25Hz Max 4 concurrent GNSS. NMEA, UBX, and RTCM over UART or I2C. Bonus Features. Qwiic Connectors, USB-C to your cart. SparkFun GPS Breakout - NEO-M9N, U. The SparkFun NEO-M9N GPS Breakout is a high quality, GPS board with equally impressive configuration options.

FL connector for use of antenna of your choice. Qwiic Connectors, USB-C. SparkFun GPS Dead Reckoning Breakout - NEO-M8U Qwiic. The SparkFun NEO-M9N GPS Breakout is a high quality, GPS board with equally impressive configuration options through Dead Rec. Cold 26 sec, Hot 1. Dead Reckoning, Built in Accelerometer Gyroscope, Qwiic Connectors. SparkFun GPS Breakout - U. FL, ZOE-M8Q Qwiic.

SparkFun GPS Breakout - ZOE-M8Q Qwiic. The SparkFun ZOE-M8Q GPS Breakout is a high accuracy, miniaturized, GPS board that is perfect for applications that don t pos. Cold 26 sec, Hot 1 sec. NMEA, UBX, and 18Hz RTCM. Software Configurable, UART, I2C, High Sensitivity. SparkFun GPS Breakout - Chip Antenna, SAM-M8Q Qwiic. The SparkFun SAM-M8Q GPS Breakout is a high quality, GPS board with equally impressive configuration options.

SparkFun GPS-RTK Dead Reckoning Breakout - ZED-F9R Qwiic. The SparkFun ZED-F9R GPS-RTK Breakout is a high precision, Automotive Dead Reckoning board with equally impressive configurat. NMEA, UBX, and RTCM over UART or I2C interfaces. 3V but all logic is 3. 130mA varies with constellations and tracking state. Dead Reckoning, Receives both L1C A and L2C Bands, Built-In Accelerometer and Gyroscope.

SparkFun GPS-RTK Dead Reckoning pHAT for Raspberry Pi. The SparkFun ZED-F9R GPS-RTK pHAT is a high precision, Automotive Dead Reckoning board with equally impressive configuration. NMEA, UBX, and RTCM over UART. Dead Reckoning, Receives both L1C A and L2C Bands, Built-In Accelerometer and Gyroscope, Raspberry Pi pHAT. SparkFun GPS-RTK2 Board - ZED-F9P Qwiic. The SparkFun GPS-RTK2 is a powerful breakout for the ZED-F9P module. The ZED-F9P is a top-of-the-line module for GNSS GPS s. Cold 25 sec, Hot 2 sec.

Receives both L1C A and L2C Bands. SparkFun GPS-RTK Board - NEO-M8P-2 Qwiic. The SparkFun GPS-RTK Board is a powerful breakout for the NEO-M8P-2 module from u-blox. The NEO-M8P-2 is a top-of-the-line mo. Cold 29 sec, Hot 1 sec. Accuracy close to 1inch. SparkFun GPS Breakout - XA1110 Qwiic. The SparkFun XA1110 GPS Breakout is a small I2C-supported module built for easy hookup, thanks to our Qwiic Connect System.

Cold 15 sec, Warm 5 sec, Hot 1 sec. NMEA, MediaTek Binary. GPS Receiver - LS20031 5Hz 66 Channel. The LS20031 GPS receiver is a complete GPS smart antenna receiver, that includes an embedded antenna and GPS receiver circuit. Cold 15 sec, Hot 1 sec. GPS Receiver - GP-20U7 56 Channel. The GP-20U7 is a compact GPS receiver with a built-in high performances all-in-one GPS chipset.

The GP-20U7 accurately provid. Cold 29 sec, Warm 28 sec, Hot 8 sec. GPS Mouse - GP-808G 72 Channel. The GPS Mouse is a self contained module perfect for UAV and autonomous vehicle enthusiasts. The The GP-808G inside the Mouse. Cold 36 sec, Warm 25 sec, Hot 1 sec. GPS Receiver - EM-506 48 Channel. com based on the spectacular SiRF StarIII chipset. Cold 35 sec, Hot 1 sec. Extremely High Sensitivity -163dBm. GPS Receiver - GP-735 56 Channel.

The GP-735 is a slim, ultra-high performance, easy to use GPS smart antenna receiver. With -162dBm tracking sensitivity and o. SparkFun GPS Module - Copernicus II DIP 12 Channel. com products 10922 is a great GPS module from Trimble, but the SMD module prohibits. Cold 38 sec, Hot 3 sec. Standalone Module Available. GPS Antennas. GPS GNSS Magnetic Mount Antenna - 3m SMA. This exceptional GPS GNSS antenna is designed for both GPS and GLONASS reception. 75g including 3m cable. Terminal Connector. GNSS Multi-Band Magnetic Mount Antenna - 5m SMA.

The ANN-MB-00 GNSS multi-band antenna is extremely unique from other GNSS GPS antennas in that it is designed to receive both. 175g including cable. GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, and BeiDou. SparkFun GNSS Chip Antenna Evaluation Board. Picks up both L1 and L2 bands. The SparkFun GNSS Chip Antenna Evaluation Board makes it easy to test out various sized GPS antennas and geometries.

Want to improve your GPS antenna multipath convergence time performance to near survey-grade GNSS levels. GPS Antenna Ground Plate. Just using this sim. 35mm thickness. Interface Cable SMA to U. This is a 4 connector cable that interfaces U. FL RF connectors to regular SMA connectors. This cable is commonly used to con. FL Mini Coax Cable - 200mm. This cute little coax is a champ in our RF kit. It has a right angle female U.

FL aka I-PEX connector on both ends. 200 mm length x 1. 25mm diameter. FL on both ends. RockBLOCK External Patch Antenna. The RockBLOCK External Patch Antenna is a high-performance magnetic mount antenna designed specifically to communicate effici. 5mm x 38mm x 12. GPS 3V Magnetic Mount Antenna SMA - 5m. Magnet mount antenna for GPS modules operating at 3V.

Designed for use with automobiles - the magnet will hold the antenna in. 46mm x 46mm x 13. Just getting started with GPS. We ve got a page just for you. We ll walk you through the basics of how GPS works, the hardware needed, a great starter project to get you going and more. Sign In to access your account information. Access My Account, Order History, Lists and more here.

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Visit our Support Network. Heart Failure Tools and Resources. A wealth of information to help you successfully manage heart failure. A self management tool that empowers heart failure patients to better manage and live with their condition. The equivalent noise bandwidth ENBW is a way to understand the noise floor that is present in these filters. By Dennis Layne. Parent Opções binárias iq option- reclame aqui 2014 HFE. To predict the sensitivity of a receiver design it is critical to understand noise including ENBW.

This paper will cover each of the building block characteristics used to calculate receiver sensitivity and then put them together to make the calculation. Receiver Sensitivity. Receiver sensitivity is a measure of the ability of a receiver to demodulate and get information from a weak signal. We quantify sensitivity as the lowest signal power level from which we can get useful information. In an Analog FM system the standard figure of merit for usable information is SINAD, a ratio of demodulated audio signal to noise.

In digital systems receive signal quality is measured by calculating the ratio of bits received that are wrong to the total number of bits received. Most Land Mobile radio systems use one of these figures of merit to quantify sensitivity. This is called Bit Error Rate BER. To measure sensitivity, we apply a desired signal and reduce the signal power until the quality threshold is met. SINAD is a term used for the Signal to Noise and Distortion ratio and is a type of audio signal to noise ratio.

In an analog FM system, demodulated audio signal to noise ratio is an indication of RF signal quality. In order to measure the audio signal to noise ratio, typically test equipment measures total audio power Signal plus Noise plus Distortion and then notch filters the audio signal tone typically 1 kHz and measures the audio power again Noise plus Distortion and takes the ratio in decibels. Bit Error Rate is a measure of signal to noise ratio in a digital modulation system. Land Mobile radio industry standards typically use 12 dB SINAD for the measurement of reference sensitivity.

In order to calculate the BER, a known repeating pattern must be transmitted to the radio. The receiver must demodulate the data and compare it to the known data pattern and determine the number of bits that are errors. The BER is then the ratio of bits in error to total bits received. The industry standard for Land Mobile radio is typically 5 BER for reference sensitivity.

Calculate Receiver Sensitivity. The sensitivity of a receiver can be calculated if one knows the following performance parameters the noise figure NFthe ENBW, and the carrier to noise ratio C N required to achieve the desired quality signal. The sensitivity is as follows. This equation defines the signal power in dB Watts that is present at the demodulator for a desired carrier to noise ratio. Let s explain each of the terms in this equation.

The total thermal noise power kTB is a function of three quantities, 1 Boltzmann s constant k in Joules K, 2 temperature in Kelvin, and 3 the overall bandwidth of the channel selective filtering in the receiver. Thermal Noise floor k Joules K T K B Hz. The resulting noise is in Joules Second or Watts. This is referred to as Thermal Noise because of the dependency on temperature. To convert the noise power to dB Watts, use 10 times the log of the noise power in watts.

If we look at the normalized B 1 Hz bandwidth noise floor equation, we have. Next, to convert from dBWatts to dBmilliwatts dBm increase this value by 30 dB. 9 dBW Hz 30 dB -173. This is the amount of noise power in a 1 Hz bandwidth. Figure 1 Noise power in a 1 Hz bandwidth. What is Noise Figure. The Noise figure is the amount of noise power added by the electronic circuitry in the receiver to the thermal noise power from the input of the receiver.

The thermal noise at the input to the receiver passes through to the demodulator. This opções binárias iq option- reclame aqui is present in the receive channel and cannot be removed. The noise figure of circuits in the receiver such as amplifiers and mixers, adds additional noise to the receive channel. This raises the noise floor at the demodulator.

What is Carrier to Noise Ratio C N. In order to achieve the desired quality of demodulated signal, the signal power must be higher than the noise floor. The required ratio of signal power to noise floor is known for certain types of modulation. For an analog FM land mobile radio system using 25 kHz channels, the receiver must have approximately 4 dB more signal power than noise power. This represents a carrier to noise ratio 4 dB. Figure 2 Noise Figure added to thermal noise kTB.

Bit Error Rate BER is the sensitivity benchmark for digital modulation systems. Eb No is the ratio of the Energy per bit Eb to the noise spectral density No - the noise power present in 1 Hz. The carrier to noise ratio required for a certain BER is a function of the Eb No of the signal. This is a digital system representation of signal to noise ratio.

Each digital modulation type has a Eb No curve Eb No vs. In order to determine sensitivity, use the appropriate curve and find desired bit error rate to determine the necessary Eb No. Where Fb is the bit rate and B is the receiver equivalent noise bandwidth. Then calculate the Carrier to noise ratio by the following relationship. Figure 3 Carrier to Noise ratio. What is Equivalent Noise Bandwidth. A filter s equivalent noise bandwidth ENBW is defined as the bandwidth of a perfect rectangular filter that passes the same amount of power as the cumulative bandwidth of the channel selective filters in the receiver.

Figure 4 Noise Power in the IF Bandwidth. At this point we would like to know the noise floor in our receiver, i. the noise power in the receiver intermediate frequency IF filter bandwidth that comes from kTB. Since the units of kTB are Watts Hz, calculate the noise floor in the channel bandwidth by multiplying the noise power in a 1 Hz bandwidth by the overall equivalent noise bandwidth in Hz.

For a receiver with a 10 kHz ENBW, we calculate the noise floor in dB milliwatts dBm as follows. 38 10-23 290 1 Hz 10000 30 134. Next we see how the bandwidth of a perfect rectangular filter compares to the actual filter response of the channel selective filters in the receiver. Figure 5 Perfect filter that passes same power. We use the bandwidth of the equivalent ideal rectangular filter ENBW to calculate the thermal noise floor. We may specify the equivalent noise bandwidth for design purposes but in practice, it is the composite bandwidth of all of the filters in front opções binárias iq option- reclame aqui the demodulator.

The power that a filter can pass is a function of the area under the filter curve. The filter plot is in dB. Figure 6 Area under filter response. Calculating ENBW from Measured Data. Ideally, we calculate the 2-sided ENBW by integrating the normalized filter power frequency response curve from -infinity to infinity fs 2 to fs 2 for a digital filter sampled at a rate of fs.

For practical purposes the -60 dB BW values of the normalized filter response can be used as the limits of integration. The integration must be done in linear terms of watts or milliwatts not dB. Scattering parameters or S-parameters are a measurement of how radio frequency RF voltage propagates through an RF network. Since we are looking for bandwidth in Hertz, we do not need to know the absolute power under the curve.

S-parameters of an RF filter can easily be measured using a network analyzer. Since S-parameters are voltage related measurements, we can convert them to a power quantity by the relationship. Figure 7 Integration by summation of rectangles. We can use the magnitude of the through response S21 as the voltage term and normalize the impedance to 1 Ohm to substitute into the Power equation. This will give us a linear power term.

For our case we choose S parameters where the magnitude is in dB. The power must be converted to a linear term for our calculations. We then calculate the bandwidth using the measured S-parameter data. For the overall ENBW, we want a rectangle where the height of the rectangle is equal to the maximum power S21 2.

The area of the rectangular filter is equal to the area under the filter curve. Calculate the area of the under the IF filter response curve by using numerical integration by uniform rectangles. Find the area of each uniform rectangle by multiplying S21 2 power by the frequency step size used in the S parameter data. For a simple rectangle. Therefore, the ENBW is. Since the S21 terms are unitless we now have a result that is frequency in Hertz. The result is the bandwidth of a rectangular filter with infinite stopband rejection that passes the same amount of power as the filter that we measured S parameters.

It is this bandwidth that we will use in our calculation of the receiver noise floor kTB. We may use software to calculate a filter s ENBW. Here is a Matlab script for calculating ENBW from an. s2p s-parameter data file. Figure 8 Matlab code to calculate ENBW of a filter using s parameters. Sometimes a digital filter implemented as a lowpass filter in DSP is the narrowest filter in a given system.

Here is a Matlab script that will calculate the ENBW of a digital lowpass filter given a text file that contains the taps for the filter. Figure 9 Matlab code to calculate ENBW of a filter using FIR filter taps. Now We Can Calculate Receiver Sensitivity. We have quantities for each of the elements of the equation for receiver sensitivity. To calculate receiver sensitivity, we add the overall noise figure of the receiver to the noise floor.

This quantifies the noise floor at the input to the demodulator. The signal must be higher than the noise floor by the carrier to noise ratio required for a desired signal quality. When these things are added, the result is the power level required to meet the figure of merit for usable information referred to as Reference Sensitivity. We can calculate the sensitivity of a receiver with a 5 dB noise figure NF for analog FM in a 25 kHz channel, using the noise floor in a 10 kHz ENBW receiver that we calculated earlier.

The carrier to noise ratio required for 12 dB SINAD in an analog FM receiver with a 10 kHz ENBW is approximately 4 dB. Substitute the values into. Equation 10 as follows. Sensitivity 10 log10 kT 10000 30 dB 5 dB 4 dB.

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11.03.2020 : 12:10 Fenricage:
Content reproduced on this site is the property of the respective copyright holders. 090921 11 38 55 ERROR innobase_buffer_pool_size can t be over 4GB on 32-bit systems 090921 11 38 55 ERROR Default storage engine InnoDB is not available. It is opções binárias iq option- reclame aqui reviewed in advance by Oracle and does not necessarily represent the opinion of Oracle or any other party.

09.03.2020 : 03:51 JoJom:
The NPS introduces common terminologies that are easy to understand by everyone.

11.03.2020 : 00:25 Zulkirisar:
Firstly, please note that if you run into any issues running the 64 bit client, please try switching back to the 32 bit client for now and see if that works.

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