My bet would be the noise optimizations are what really help. HowaboutRAW It s not a myth; one needs to go no further than our own studio scene to see this. Have a look at this particular comparison of low resolution cameras on the left vs. high resolution cameras on the right at ISO 6400. Although the low resolution cameras have lower noise at native resolutionsthe leveling field evens out as soon as you click the Print to normalize the comparisons by downsampling all cameras to the same 8 MP resolution.
It can t get any clearer than that. Continuing to argue against what the visual results clearly show the math dictates is just misleading our readers. Are there limits to this. And I have results that prove the fail, more than once. For example the ISO 256000 raws from the A7r and A7s with the former downsampled. And that A7r is doing an okay job, but the A7r result is noiser--just as one would expect from the full sized image.
What makes you think I ve never tried this. I don t click print to downsample, I downsample in Photoshop. You can t make the A7 D610 shoot higher ISOs like the D4 by downsampling. Now there is some possibility that print is introducing some other factor, and that, as a solution to the claims of NR, I m open to. For example printing to paper, beyond 300ppi, does help with noise reduction.
I checked again. Using the A7r and A7s ISO 25600 raws from the Seattle sky at night from the DPR test. With the raws down-loaded, I extracted them to 8 bit tiffs with the same NR settings in ACR 8. Then I downsampled the A7r tiff so its pixel dimensions were the same and, I believe 4240 across. 5, within PhotoShop CS6. Result The A7r tiff had a bit more grain, and much much more cyan and magenta blotching than the A7s tiff.
Let PhotoShop use the first resampling algorithm. I believe there are 6 to pick from. How many times do I have to repeat the test. Downsampling does not have some magic way of sorting signal from noise and holding on to signal. Now for that ISO, the A7r did surprisingly well for grain, not for blotching though. Er, thank you - because that was the entire point of this article. You claimed downsampling does not reduce noise.
That s completely incorrect, which can be shown time and again simply by hitting the Print button which down-samples the image to 8MP in our studio scene. This article was looking at any tangible gains w the A7S over the A7R - in normalized comparisons - due to the larger pixels of the A7S and or any other optimizations to the sensor signal processing. Downsampling reduces noise, but in this case not enough - at the higher ISOs - to match the performance of the A7S. Again, that was the entire point of this article, presumably one of the reasons behind Sony making the A7S to begin with video considerations aside.
We even talked about reasons for why the normalization might not be enough. the A7S might have the following going for it lower aggregate read noise of 3x fewer pixels, potential QE increases, possibly decreased quantization error due to higher conversion gains, etc. But as for reasons why the A7R can t keep with the A7S at higher ISOs, it s definitely not that downsampling does NOT reduce noise.
That s just incorrect, and a misleading statement. It s that downsamping normalizing does not reduce noise enough to provide the same level of performance as the A7S for very, very low signals. The conclusion was that differences exist - at higher ISOs - where simple normalization does not reduce noise enough to bring the SNR of the higher resolution sensor up to that of the lower resolution sensor. Likely because of one or more of the reasons in the previous paragraph. Yes of course downsampling does reduce noise, it reduces the rest of the picture too.
The cyan and magenta blotches get smaller, by pixel count. What downsampling doesn t do is reduce noise as an overall fraction of the total pixels. Or Downsampling can t select signal over noise and toss out the noise. Otherwise NR would be really easy. That some of the downsampling options in Photoshop smear out noise differently, yes.
And sometimes that can be helpful. and yet you said Downsampling does NOT remove noise, it s a near total myth. Which is why I engaged in this discussion clarification. As for Downsampling can t select signal over noise and toss out the noise. I m not sure why you re complicating things so much. See the equations for normalization here.
Noise is random deviation, which is somewhat subdued upon averaging pixels when downsizing. Therefore, there s a tangible SNR increase. The principle is similar to averaging n exposures the SNR goes up sqrt n as you either 1 average n images, or 2 downsample n -fold downsample an image to n -times less total resolution. The camera is mainly designed for video, competing with GH4, 5D III etc.
Then why the very quiet shutter. Loud shutters are a real draw back to the A7 and A7R. There are obvious reasons to use this as still camera. Does the 5D III shoot 4K video. 5D III doesn t shoot 4K video. 5D III can shoot raw video. You can frame grab from 4K video, equals quiet shutter anyway. Raw to an external recorder, right. That s recording to a 1050x or faster CF card internally.
Let s make it clear. shooting 4K videomost of which isn t actually 4K but UHD but I digress superior video. There are so many factors involved including file compression, color compression, artifacting, motion estimation in compression, shutter roll, etc. In fact, I d pick a 1080p or 2K camera with a universal sensor shooting RAW over a 4K camera with decent compressed image. I am frequently hitting ISO 6400 and still wish for higher IQ at those and higher levels, I would prefer higher IQ at ISO 100 though, thats more important to me, but hand holding at higher ISO s is nice to have.
The results are impressive. all the cameras have decent high ISO performance. For my purposes I would take the A7R with it s higher resolution and greater dynamic range at lower ISO s. For me, I have pretty much zero need for any ISO over 6400, and in actual use rarely use anything above 3200. I kind of look at stratospheric ISO ratings much the same as stupidly high fps ratings. unless you have a very specific need it s a completely useless rating.
90 of the people who say they need 10fps don t. same things goes for these crazy high ISO ratings. choice is good and Sony gives you three options with the A7 lineup. Conclusions 1 noise per sensor is equal enough on all 3. 2 the A7r gives you more resolution without sacrificing low light quality. And the A7r can t be used above ISO 8,000 without trouble. So you re limiting your lowlight options with that 36MP body.
3 the A7r provides the most bang for your buck for image quality. You re not comprehending the noise-per-sensor thing. The A7r is no worse than the A7s for stills. thats what I have been saying, and seeing. but there, both are crappy, a7s a little less so. is there difference in shadow noise once normalized at iso 200K, yeah, maybe.
It looks like an error has occurred. Thanks for adding this comparison, next to the standard comparisons. I hope DPReview will add more of these kind of comparisons. It really helps to get grips on the value of technological advance for your photography or when selecting a new camera. Total 157, showing 1 50 First Previous 1 2 3 4 Next Last. Yep, we re doing it. Lensrentals most-rented gear of 2017 contains a few interesting surprises.
Among them Sony has out-rented Nikon for the first time ever, and a Sony battery somehow took the 6 spot overall. The Canon EOS 6D Mark II is a better camera than its predecessor, but how much better. Should you buy one. In the fifth and final part of his series of articles on aerial photography, Erez Marom recaps some of his most formative experiences. Mount a Canon EOS 5D Mark III to a heavy duty, custom-built drone and you can capture some incredible footage.
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If you d rather use Windows 10 Pro instead of the Windows 10 Home update, you must purchase a new product key. The above method is the best way to get Windows 10 for free at least for now. There are other ways you can get Windows 10 if you need it, including free and low-cost options that may be worth exploring. Upgrade from Windows 7. Buy a copy of Windows 10 from Microsoft. Read our guide on how to upgrade from Windows 7 to Windows 10.
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For a full list of iCUE compatible devices, click HERE. Indicators The Best Technical Indicators For Digital Trading. Trading technical indicators with binary options can be a highly profitable trading style if you know how to do it right. What Are Technical Indicators. Why Are Technical Indicators And Digital Options A Great Combination.
With this information, you will immediately be able to trade binary options with technical indicators. Three Examples Of Strategies For Technical Indicators. What Are Indicators. Some indicators draw their results directly into the price chart, which makes it easy for analysts to compare them to the current market price. Other indicators use a separate window to display their results. Our article explains the basics and three examples of strategies that you can use.
The most well-known example of this type of indicator is oscillators. These indicators create a value that oscillates between 0 and 100. This value and its change over time allow you to understand what happened in the past and what will happen next. There are thousands of indicators, but these are the most important types and a few examples.
Support resistance These indicators predict support and resistance levels at which the market is likely to turn around. When it breaks through such a level, it will likely create a strong movement away from the price level. Examples Bottom, Fibonacci retracement, Pivot point PPTop. Trend These indicators help you evaluate the strength and trustworthiness of trends. Examples Average directional index A.Commodity channel index CCIDetrended price oscillator DPOKnow sure thing oscillator KSTIchimoku Kinkō Hyō, Moving average convergence divergence MACDMass index Moving average MAParabolic SAR SARSmart money index SMITrix Vortex Indicator VI.
Momentum These indicators help you understand the momentum of a movement. Examples Money flow index MFIRelative strength index RSIStochastic oscillator, True strength index TSIUltimate oscillator Williams R R. Volume These indicators use the trading volume the number of assets sold or bought to evaluate whether investors are more bullish or bearish. Examples Accumulation distribution line, Ease of movement EMVForce Index FINegative volume index NVIOn-balance volume OBVPut call ratio PCRVolume price trend VPT.
Volatility Indicators These indicators measure the strength of a movement, which helps traders to make a variety of predictions, especially for binary options types that use target prices, for example one touch options, boundary options, or ladder options. Examples Average true range ATRBollinger Bands BBDonchian channel, Keltner channel, CBOE, Market Volatility Index VIXStandard deviation σ. There is no need to learn all of these indicators. Take a look at each category, choose the one that you like best, and take it from there.
It is best to start with an indicator that you truly understand and like. Later you can add more indicators to your strategy, allowing your trading to evolve naturally. Why Do Indicators Suit Binary Options. Most binary options traders rely heavily on technical indicators. There are mainly three reasons for this strong connection between binary options and technical indicators. Technical indicators simplify price action analysis.
Price action is the only way to predict what will happen on such short time frames as you use within binary options. Just looking at price movements can be confusing, though. Technical indicators can filter the most important information of a price chart and display it in a way that everyone can immediately understand. This simplification makes your trading quicker and easier. Indicators secure your trading. When you analyze the market without any help, there is a lot of information to take in.
Complexity leads to mistakes and bad decisions, both of which cost you money. Technical indicators eliminate these mistakes, which is why they help you make more money in a simpler way a great combination. Indicators can reveal things no trader can. Within a split second, technical indicators analyze hundreds of datasets, filter out the most relevant information, and display it in a way that everyone can understand.
Without the help of technical indicators, most of this information would be inaccessible. It would take years to calculate the Bollinger bands for fifty assets with ten time periods each. Technical analysis adds layers of information to your trading that would have been hidden otherwise. These points are the reasons why technical indicators and binary options are such a great combination. What Are Leading Indicators. Leading indicators are a special form of market indicators.
Market indicators are everything that helps you understand whether the price of an asset will rise or fall in the future. They provide an important, helpful, and easy-to-interpret tool of for binary options traders. With the right strategy, they can help you anticipate new market movements and find the ideal timing to invest. These indicators can be categorised into two types. Leading indicators. Lagging indicators.
This type of indicator tells you what has happened to the price of an asset. While this information is supposed to help you predict what will happen next, the indication itself focuses on the past this is the big difference between both types of indicators. The goal of leading indicators is to give you a sense of where the price of an asset is heading. A great example of a leading indicator from another field is the business climate index.
Business managers report their expectations for the future, and the index creates an aggregated value that easily can be compared easily to previous months and years. Leading financial indicators do the same thing. They measure something, and the resulting value tells you whether things will get better or worse.
The value and its change over time help you to predict whether the economy will improve or get worse. This type of indicator predicts what will happen to the price of an asset. Why Should I Use Leading Indicators. Leading indicators serve a very important purpose they can help you understand whether an existing movement is more likely to continue or to end soon. With this indication, you can find great trading opportunities and avoid bad ones.
For example, assume that you find an upwards movement. If your leading indicator tells you that the movement likely will continue, you know that this is the right time to trade a high option. If your leading indicator tells you that the movement likely will end soon, you know that now is not the right time to trade a high option. You should either stay out of the market or trade an option that predicts the impending end of the movement.
For any trend follower, swing trader, and almost anyone else, leading indicators add important information to their trading style. They can help filter out bad signals, find new trading opportunities, and win more trades. Popular Examples Of Leading Indicators. Some of them are similar, some very different. To help you understand leading indicators better, we will now take a look at three different examples of leading indicators that allow you to get a good feel for the different types of leading indicators.
There are hundreds of leading indicators. Example 1 The Money Flow Index MFI. The Money Flow Index MFI is such a popular leading indicator because it helps traders quickly evaluate the strength of a trend. As the name indicates, the MFI compares the money that flows into an asset to the money that flows out of it. For this purpose, it multiplies the average of each period s high, low, and closing prices with the period s volume and then divides the sum of all periods with rising prices by the sum of all periods with falling prices.
When the MFI reads 100, all the money was flowing into an asset all periods featured rising periods. The result is a value between 0 and 100. When the MFI reads 0, all the money was flowing out of an asset all periods featured falling prices. Every value over 50 indicates that more people sold than bought the asset, every value under 50 indicates the opposite. The MFI s reading and its change over time allow for two predictions about future market movements.
Extreme values. When the MFI is too high usually over 70 or too low usually under 30the market enters the extreme areas. Traders assume that such extreme values indicate that too many traders have already bought or sold an asset and that there are no more traders left that can buy or sell the asset and keep the movement going. Consequently, they predict that the movement is in trouble and soon will either turn around or go through a consolidation before it can continue.
Some traders use this signal to stop investing in the movement; some already invest in the opposite direction. When the market forms a new extreme in a trend a new high in an uptrend or a new low in a downtrendthe MFI should mirror this movement and create a new extreme, too. When the MFI does not mirror the market s new high low with its own high low, traders have stopped pushing the trend. While this was still enough to create a new extreme, a continuing decline in momentum would end the trade.
Some traders would use this signal to stop investing in a trend, some to invest in the opposite direction. Of course, you can also interpret the MFI in the opposite way. When the MFI reads between 30 and 70, there is enough room for the market to continue its current movement. Most traders would predict that the movement will continue for a while and invest accordingly. When the MFI mirrors the current trend, the trend is intact.
Most traders would predict that the trend will continue and invest accordingly. The MFI is a leading indicator because it predicts that a trend or movement will continue or end soon. Lagging indicators would only tell you what happened to a movement in the past. Because the MFI s value oscillates between 0 and 100, it is called an oscillator. Most other oscillators are leading indicators, too. If you like the idea of having a simple on which to base your investment decisions, take a look at other oscillators technical analysis has to offer.
Example 2 The Commodity Channel Index CCI. Don t let the name fool you the Commodity Channel Index CCI works with all types of assets, not only commodities. Simply put, the CCI calculates how far an asset has diverged from its statistical mean. The theory is that when an asset has strayed too far from its mean price, it will soon have to come back.
Just like with MFI, the CCI assumes that when too many traders have bought or sold an asset, there is nobody left to push the market further in this direction. It has to turn around and consolidate. In detail, the CCI multiplies the last complete period s average of high, low, and closing price with 0. 015 and puts the result in relation to a smoothed moving average. Values over 100 indicate that the asset is trading higher than 1.
015 times of the moving average s value. Values under -100 indicate that the asset is trading lower than 0. 985 times of the moving average s value. In both cases, the CCI predicts that the market has moved too far from the moving average and that the movement will soon turn around. Some traders also wait before they invest. When the CCI has risen over 100, they wait until it starts to fall before they invest.
When the CCI has fallen below -100, they wait until it starts to rise before they invest. These traders use the CCI more as a lagging indicator. To use the CCI as a leading indicator, you have to invest when the market crosses the 100 -100 lines then you invest in anticipation. When you trade the changing direction, you invest in reaction and use the CCI as a lagging indicator.
Sometimes the line between lagging and leading indicators can be thin. As long as you know the difference and trade accordingly, you should be fine. Example 3 The Relative Strength Index RSI. On first glance, the Relative Strength Index RSI appears to be pretty similar to the Money Flow Index MFI. Both are oscillators, create a value between 0 and 100, and use an overbought and an oversold area. The difference between both indicators is that the RSI focuses solely on price change while the MFI also considers the volume of each period.
While the RSI treats every period equally, the MFI puts more weight on periods with a high volume and less weight on periods with a low volume. Other than that, you can use the RSI just like the MFI. When the RSI is between 30 and 70 the current movement should still have some room; when it mirrors a trend, the trend is fine. Trade divergences and the oversold areas above 70 or below 30. Neither the MFI nor the RSI is always better. Some traders argue that the volume does have a significant effect because it tells you which direction more traders support.
Some traders argue that they trade the price, not the volume and that they, therefore, should ignore volume. They also say that the volume is too similar on the short time frames of binary options to have an effect. These traders should use the RSI. Which indicator you should use depends on your strategy, your personality, and your beliefs about the market.
These traders should use the MFI. How To Trade Leading Indicators With Binaries. We will present strategies that use leading indicators in both ways. All leading indicators can be the sole basis of your trading strategy or an additional feature to your current strategy to filter out signals. Strategy 1 Trading The MFI Divergences With High Low Options.
We already pointed out that the MFI mirrors an intact trend. When an intact uptrend creates a new high, the MFI creates a new high, too. When an intact downtrend creates a new low, the MFI create a new low, too. When the MFI fails to mirror a trend s new extreme, the trend is in trouble. The trend is losing momentum, and while it still had enough power to create new extreme, it seems that this was the trend s last extreme. High low options offer you the perfect tool to trade this prediction.
When the MFI diverges in an uptrend, invest in a low option. When the MFI diverges in a downtrend, invest in a high option. The important part of this strategy is getting the expiry right. While it is highly likely that the market will follow an MFI divergence by changing direction or entering a sideways movement, these movements take time to develop. It is important that you choose your expiry long enough to provide the market with this time.
When you find an MFI divergence in a 5-minute chart, for example, an expiry of 15 minutes would be insufficient. The market will take at least 10 periods to turn around, and a 15-minute expiry would only be the equivalent of 3 bars. Choose an expiry of one hour, and you increase your chances of winning the trade. You can also trade this strategy with the RSI. You would just switch indicators, without changing anything else.
Additionally, you can replace high low options with low-risk ladder options. Ladder options work just like high low options but allow you to use a price other than the current market price as the reference point for your prediction. After an MFI divergence in an uptrend, you predict that the market will trade lower than a price that is above the current market price. After an MFI divergence in a downtrend, you predict that the market will trade higher than a price that is below the current market price.
This is the safer version of the strategy. Instead of using the current market price as the reference point for your prediction, you use a price that is further in the direction from which you expect the market to move away. This strategy will win you a higher percentage of your trades but also get you a lower payout. Decide for yourself which strategy you want to use. Strategy 2 Filtering Trends With The RSI.
A trend following strategy follows a simple principle. In an uptrend, invest in rising prices. In a downtrend, invest in falling prices. Despite this simplicity, many traders are afraid that they might invest in a trend that will end soon. These traders can use the RSI to filter signals. When the RSI has mirrored the trend, invest in the trend. When the RSI has diverged from the trend, do not invest in the trend. The addition of the RSI to a trend-following strategy can help traders to win a higher percentage of their trades and make more money with a simple check.
Keep the rest of your strategy unchanged. Use the same expiry as before and invest the same percentage of your overall account balance per trade. Strategy 3 Trading the MFI s extreme areas with high low options. In addition to divergences, the MFI also creates a prediction when a movement enters an extreme area. This prediction allows for a simple trading strategy. When the MFI enters the overbought area, invest in a low option.
When the MFI enters the oversold area, invest in a low option. The success of this strategy depends on your ability to choose the right expiry. The market will need some time to turn around, which is why you must avoid choosing a too short expiry. When you choose your expiry too long, on the other hand, the movement might be over by the time your option expires. Experience will help you find the right expiry. The perfect setting depends on the situation, the period of your chart, and the characteristics of the asset.
If you are looking for a rough number with which to start, try around 5 periods, and then take it from there. Similarly to the first strategy, you can also trade this strategy based on the RSI or with low-risk ladder options. Leading indicators are an important, helpful, and easy-to-interpret tool of market analysis. Leading Indicators Summary. Binary options traders can use leading indicators as the sole basis of their strategy or to filter signals.
They are especially helpful to find the right timing and avoid bad trading opportunities. What Are Lagging Indicators. Lagging indicators are an important aspect of any market analysis strategy. This article explains everything you need to know to trade binary options based on lagging indicators. You will also understand their advantages, disadvantages, and ideal fields of use.
The difference between leading and lagging trading indicators is the same. Lagging trading indicators tell you what happened to the price of an asset in the past in a way that helps you to predict what will happen next. Leading indicators analyse another factor and predict how it will influence the price of an asset. This difference is why lagging indicators are especially useful during trending periods.
Lagging indicators serve an important purpose and are a vital part of any market analysis strategy. When the market is in a trend, lagging indicators can help you make great predictions; but when the market is not trending, many lagging indicators use their predictive qualities. To see how you can use lagging indicators for your trading, let s take a closer look at three popular examples of lagging indicators. Popular Examples Of Lagging Indicators. There are hundreds of lagging indicators, but let s keep things simple.
Here are the three most popular lagging indicators every trader should know. Example 1 Trends. The most popular example of a lagging indicator is the trend. Trends are the zig zag movements that take the market to new highs and lows. Trends are zig-zag movements because the market never moves in a straight line.
Every once in a while, every movement has to take a break to create new momentum. It is simply impossible for all traders constantly to keep buying. The resulting zig-zag movements are easy to identify and allow for accurate predictions. Downtrends continually create lower lows and highs. This is why trends take two steps forward and one step back.
A trend strategy predicts that the current trend is likely to continue. When the market is in an uptrend, trend traders invest in rising prices. When the market is in a downtrend, trend traders invest in falling prices. Some traders also trade every swing in a trend. A swing is a movement from high to low, and by trading multiple swings during a trend, swing traders hope to increase their profit.
Of course, no trend will continue indefinitely. But even with high low options, you would only need to win 60 percent of your trades to make money. A well-executed trend strategy should easily be able to achieve this goal. A trend is a lagging indicator because it tells you that the market was in a trend over the last periods. While this knowledge also allows for predictions about what will happen next, the main indication of a trend is based on past price movements.
Most other lagging indicators lose their predictive abilities when the market is not trending, which is why a trend analysis should precede the use of other technical indicators. Example 2 Moving averages. Another popular example of a lagging indicator is the moving average. Trends are also the most important lagging indicator. A moving average calculates the average price of the last periods and draws it into your chart.
It then repeats the process for all preceding periods and connects the dots to a line. The position and the direction of a moving average can tell you a lot about what the price of an asset has done. When a moving average points upwards, the market must have risen over the last periods. When it points downwards, the market must have fallen. When the market is trading higher than the moving average, the market must have risen over the last periods.
When the market is trading lower than the moving average, the market must have fallen. When the market is trading above a moving average and the moving average is pointing upwards, the market is likely rising. When the market is trading below a moving average and the moving average is pointing downwards, the market is likely falling. These indications help you to make a better investment decision. When both of these indications point in the same direction, you get a good indication of what is happening.
Uptrends continually create higher highs and lows. Example 3 Bollinger Bands. Bollinger Bands are a popular indicator because they create a price channel in which the market is likely to remain. A 20-period moving average as the middle line. This price channel consists of three lines or bands. An upper line two times the standard deviation above the middle line. A lower line two times the standard deviation below the middle line. The market always never leaves the outer two lines of the Bollinger Bands.
Bollinger Bands can help you to understand whether an asset s price is likely to rise or fall. When an asset is trading near the upper range of the Bollinger Bands, it has little room left to climb any further. When an asset is trading near the lower range of the Bollinger Bands, it has little room left to fall any further. Consequently, it is likely to fall. Consequently, it is likely to rise. When an asset is approaching the middle line, it is likely to take a break.
Sometimes, the market will break through the middle line; sometimes, it will turn around. These indications provide you with many trading opportunities. Bollinger Bands are lagging indicators because they only tell you what happened in the past. The moving average and the standard deviation are both based on the last 20 periods. While it is likely that the market will adhere to similar confides for the current period, too, Bollinger Bands are unable to predict the trading range 50 periods from now.
Then, the market environment will have changed, and the trading range will be different. We will later see how. Why Should I Use Lagging Indicators. Some newcomers to binary options question whether lagging indicators can help them at all. They point out that any trader has to predict what will happen next, and argue that indicators that tell you what has already happened are of little help with this task.
These traders are mistaken. Lagging indicators can make valuable predictions and help you gain deep insights into the market. There are two main reasons why traders use lagging indicators. Despite this limitation, Bollinger Bands can be a valuable part of your trading strategy. Lagging indicators are based on proven facts; leading indicators are not. Understanding what has happened helps you predict what will happen next.
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